Dream and real Nikiforov Well
On the way to Krakow - Polish tourist Mecca - Ukrainian traveler can pick up in town Well Malopolska province. This is not only famous spa and ski resort. The well known worldwide thanks to an ingenious artist primitive Nicephorus, whose museum is valued every guest to visit the town. For the life of the artist, which tell of local exhibits, not less striking than his paintings.
Simplicity and genius - way compatible
It seems that none of our artists did not reached the glory of that which life had Nicephorus of Krynica. Only in Paris exhibited his watercolors 14 times and each time had great success. Perhaps it was the biggest shock for most people Krynica. They are hard to imagine this beggar, bezhatka, eccentric, mistechkove mockery as the world-famous artist.
But even today many people do not understand and do not accept primitivism, or as accurately say "naive art". Meanwhile, Russo, Pirosmani, Heneralich, and many Ukrainian people, such as Maria Prymachenko considered outstanding in his "nomination". Mystery prytyahalnosti "naive art" in sincerity, spontaneity, and even self-taught artist dytyachosti which academism unknown, equally as formalism, indifference, cynicism ... This is definitely art. But - otherwise. One of the naive painters was actually Nicephorus (1895-1968) years.
The meeting in Krynica
Place of action - a town Krynica (Małopolska province, county New Sancho). It is very similar to other towns Prikarpatskii: Morshyn Truskavets or Yaremche. The first record of this village have Lemko of 1547. Well then I have been known for its mineral springs. Though first house hunters wishing to receive treatment here built in 1793 and first baths - even after 14 years, rapid development of the resort has just begun in the second half of the nineteenth century. This was facilitated and gentle climate, picturesque mountain landscapes, and reckless advertising. Finally Well "bifurcate" at Lemko (very conscious and cultural) and a well-village purely Polish spa town of Krynica.
So imagine her in 30 years of the twentieth century. Streets walking slowly spa gentlemen. Who got the same treatment, who - with boredom, who - to resort novels. For example, in the same town had 1939 32 thousand holidaymakers. But back a bit, in year 1932 and. That street goes high slim and beautiful gentleman. What attitude! What noble manners! Just the same English aristocrat. This Roman Turin, pensions administrator. "Part-" - also known artist from Lviv.
What he saw before him, surprised many of Mr. Turin. In pidmurivku sat a beggar ... and painted. The man looked like a deliberate dibranoyu bright high contrast gentleman in an elegant suit. Street painter was quite low, in itself was a true rags. All testified about his appearance uposlidzhenist extreme, cruel fate and the daily struggle for a piece of bread. The same pathetic art equipment and was a stranger: "nedohryzky" pencils, brown paper, the cheapest (and almost painted) akvarelky ...
Having glanced at the picture beggars, Roman Turin noticed something that nobody noticed until now: the man who sits before him, great and original artist. Actually he Roman Turin, then opened the world Nicephorus like Columbus - America.
Coming resort administrator learned that yonder beggar - son, obviously, most miserable woman in Krynica Evdokia Drovniak. This deaf farmer had won the same nothing, including his own corner. Most perebyvalasya that soap to the house floor. And if I could not find work in Krynica, traveled surrounding villages. With a son always led Epiphany. Who was his father, to this day remains a mystery ...
Because small Epiphany spoke mostly to deaf mother, he never learned to speak properly. However, later when the Roman Turin potovaryshuvav of Epiphany Drovniak saw that, and though he vaguely says it is quite possible to communicate.
Gradually, in Lviv artist vymalyuvalasya whole picture of life Drovniak gray, or, as it often called, Nicephorus. Respected krynychany felt it now as they say, a bum big weirdo (and easier - a little var'yatom) and generally unworthy object of attention. Holiday-makers, moreover, had Nicephorus for the interesting attribute of the wells - but not anymore. If they bought his drawings, only compassion. Meanwhile Epiphany imagined himself that he is primarily "for tourists, drawing them in memory landscapes wells and other wonderful pictures. And really?
Actually Nikephoros painted not for holidaymakers or even for yourself. He painted for could not not paint. This was the only goal of his life and, ultimately, by life itself. Realized his calling very early and never departed from him. Considered a sin to live a day, nothing painted. So every day, in any weather with its poor prychandallyam rozkladavsya painting outdoors - or resort to the house or near New Mineral Bath - and drew, painted, painted ... But just what, in his opinion, was worth a picture (generally Nikephoros treated very seriously in their work, and considered himself a serious artist). So often they were landscapes, often with houses or with the railroad, interior (military command, in the boarding house kitchen, church, imperial palace), self-portraits and even a few acts (drawing naked female body). Portrait of the surrounding reality, the artist makes a necessary, in his view, additions and changes. Actually because of multi-building Nikiforov pictures look rather surreal. Every side, sticking huge, as in children's drawings, wind vane, and the spire of flags and smoke coming from the chimney, as if with an engine that provides static objects is somehow dynamics.
Besides the architecture, another "eternal theme was road. Rural landscapes from a small station and "bandolier" ways or big city stations. Nikephoros loved railway in all forms, not very far once traveled by train. Of course, the hare.
The key to understanding the self and creativity of the artist it is very unusual self-portraits. Often about a particular artist used the phrase "he paints his own world. But this cliche very precisely to the situation with Nicephorus. Unknown painter, defiled world, rejected the world, after all, cut off from the world's inability to fully communicate, drew himself his own, a better world. There he was master, he knew how to be - and not only boldly vypravlyav streets, buildings, people, and ... himself. It was kind of compensation for all that is added talented guy cruel fate.
Nikephoros of self - it does not beggar. This elegantly dressed lord, teacher, priest, or bishop and one of the saints in the icon. But more often - an artist in elegant attire, with "art" instead of a bow tie, in an expensive suit, coat, hat ... With sketchbook in hand or range of easels. One of watercolors depicting the feast of artists, as it envisioned Lemkiv Pirosmani. You mentioned a famous Georgian film about an artist. The main character belt all his life dreamed to build a house on the hill, where the artists met and drank tea and talked about art ... Apparently, Nikephoros had the same obsessive vision. In the hall, similar to Gothic church or castle, sitting solemnly at a large table artists. The center - a man in episcopal attire, in front of it - candles and cross. Rather it is just one of the portraits. Nikephoros called for the feast of all artists who gladly accepted the invitation of his colleague and brother.
After drawing, the artist usually signed it on the front side, and put on the back of a stamp, depicting the artist himself. And just then saw his work completed. But the most interesting that our hero was illiterate, so except for certain words that he remembered, the rest was random set of letters.
What came next?
... More watched Roman Turin for street painters, the more amazed. Exclusive artist's intuition, successfully dibranym colors, skillfully constructed compositions. And courage, expression, creative reconsideration of reality. But it was also something that does not express a word, and it stirred him so, so zatyahuvalo Nikiforov in the world.
Resolved. This should see his friends in Lvov, after all, it must see all. Just to explain, just say the opening ceremony that this - other art. Nicephorus I accept, accept, will love. However, maybe prodadutsya work, and this little logistical support artist. And then - Paris. This is not a conservative Galicia, there immediately understand that he discovered gem.
Indeed, the same in 1932 after an exhibition in Lviv Roman Turin brought Nicephorus paintings in Paris, where art was appreciated by original artist. There's work exhibited at the Opening Day "Paris Ukrainian group" in the gallery Leon Marseilles.
Nicephorus affirm the world as a unique artist - the third that made for Epiphany Drovniak Turin. First, think about it daily bread (and then always financially support the artist), and the roof over your head. Turin Nicephorus provided meals at the boarding house, found a modest apartment. Second, what did - bought for a street artist best, paint, brushes, paper. Then he repeatedly bought works Nicephorus.
Roman Turin and more definitely "tyknuv finger" of Nicephorus familiar artists and art critics. Thus, the first publication in cultural and art journals. Finally, from Lviv to "infected" many artists and their friends Nicephorus. Today, this "disease" has spread so much that of Nicephorus of the well written too many books, documentaries and even cleared feature films. The well last year set a monument to the artist. And this year, thanks to patronage of the German lemky Michael Martovycha (doctor and collector of paintings Nicephorus) and mite Lviv artists grew beautiful monument in the heart of the city. During the presentation of the speeches dealt with the fact that Nicephorus again, it seems, was also in Ukraine - at the opening of the exhibition.
The well in the former villa "Romanivka» (Romanowka) over ten years ago a museum Epifaniya Drovniak.
Besides works of Nicephorus, it presents clear, spectacular photos of the artist at work or just outside. In one of the showcases exhibits personal belongings, suitcases, sketchbook, poor paint and artist brushes deleted.
Well today a very famous resort and luxurious place to hold various seminars and forums. But for many it Noteworthy is the fact that there lived and worked Drovniak Epiphany.
As Nicephorus found glory, but not caught
After World War II Epiphany Drovniak like all lemky Poland, was condemned to deportation. Who is left to Ukraine that later evicted to the north or east of Poland. Nicephorus among them. Three times he was sick and hungry, walking back into the well.
At the end of 1940 in Poland was again "open" Nicephorus. Exhibit of his work. But all this enthusiasm by Polish artists. Up until the picture Nicephorus visited many countries and received a high estimation of experts and the public, when Nicephorus became journalists in turn, drew attention to the artist's state.
Then in 1960, he was already exhausted by summer people. Glory has not changed Nicephorus. The only thing with her singled home the artist, have everything you need for life. Instead, Nikephoros, who always slept on the floor, so went to bed and in his own apartment. By the last days asked: "Where is the painter Turin? Why not come? "A painter Turin and then lived in Ukraine - is already abroad. Art teacher at school and in their tuzhyv Unknown friend. He (once again) has gathered his fellow artists and decided to organize an exhibition of Nicephorus - in Lviv and Kiev.
In early October 1968 in Kiev really opened this exhibition. It was a huge success. But it is in Kiev during his triumph (10 October) Nicephorus left this world and was in the best.