Festival set to celebrate the victory over Nazi Germany in World War II 1941-45 biennium holiday in Ukraine and some CIS states.
Victory Day introduced in 1945, but 1947 is actually a long time and was observed working day: the first time was widely celebrated in the Soviet Union only 20 years. In the same anniversary of Victory Day 1965 was off again.
On this day traditionally meet veteran, assigned wreaths to the monument to glory and military prowess, thunders a gala salute.
Last Days of War
In April 1945 the Soviet army approached the borders of Berlin.
The troops occupied the defense along the western coast of the Oder and Neisse year. On the approach to Berlin and in the city focused group of troops, which had a membership of 62 divisions (including 48 infantry, 4 tank and 10 motorized), 37 separate regiments of infantry and about 100 separate infantry battalions and a significant number of artillery units. This group numbered about a million people, 1500 tanks, 10 400 guns and mortars, 3300 combat aircraft.
Berlin itself was also transformed into a strong fortified area and prepared to conduct street fighting. Around Berlin was set up three defensive rings, inside the city built more than 400 long-term concrete firing point with the garrisons to thousands of people. Sam Berlin garrison comprised a membership of about 200 thousand people.
Taking the Reichstag
April 29 began the battle for the Reichstag, which defended about a thousand people. After several attacks parts of 171 st and 150 th rifle divisions were able to take home. April 30 14 hours 25 minutes over the Reichstag was set the flag of victory.
The signing of the capitulation
May 1 at 3 hours 50 minutes at the command post of the 8 th Army Guard was brought Chief of General Staff Army General Wehrmacht infantry Krebs, who said that he was authorized to negotiate a truce. However, Stalin ordered not to conduct any negotiations except unconditional surrender. German command was delivered an ultimatum: if up to 10 hours will not be given consent to unconditional surrender, Soviet troops would have suffered a crippling blow. Not receiving a response, Soviet troops 10 hours 40 minutes opened fire on the remnants of hurricane defense in center of Berlin. By 18 o'clock it was reported that kapitulyaiyu demands were rejected. Then began the final assault downtown, where there was Imperial Chancellery. Throughout the night, from 1 to May 2, continued the battle for office. By the morning all the premises were occupied by Soviet soldiers.
Night May 2 at 1 hour 50 minutes on the radio was taken the following message: "We are sending our parliamentarians to the bridge Bismarck Strasse. Continuing military operations. " Later, Deputy Minister of Propaganda Dr. Fritch turned to the Soviet command to ask for permission to speak on the radio from the appeals to the German troops in Berlin garrison cease resistance. By 15 o'clock the remains of the Berlin garrison (more than 134 thousand people) seemed to captivity.
May 7 at 2:41 the night in Reims, signed the act of unconditional surrender of Germany. On behalf of the Allies signed the instrument of surrender: General Walter Bedell Smith, Gen. John Susloparov (as witness) in the USSR and General Francois Seveso in France. From Germany signatories Frideburh Admiral and General yodel.
May 8 at 22:43 CET (May 9 at 0:43 Moscow time), General Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, and representatives of the German Navy that had the relevant powers of Donitsa signed the act of unconditional surrender of Germany. World War II ended.
With the agreement between the governments of the USSR, the USA and UK had agreed to consider the previous procedure in Reims. However, in western historiography of the signing of the capitulation of the German armed forces are generally associated with the procedure in Reims, and the signing of the act of surrender in Berlin called its "ratification".
Accepting surrender, the Soviet Union did not sign peace with Germany, that remained with Germany at war. The war with Germany was kinchena January 21, 1955 adoption of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the proper decision. However, when in fact the Great Patriotic War understand only part of the war with Germany till May 8 1945, inclusive.
In the Berlin operation was attended by over 2.5 million soldiers and officers, 6250 tanks and self-propelled guns, 7500 aircraft.
The losses were enormous: the day the Red Army lost to 15 thousand people, the battle for Berlin has surpassed all other operations the Red Army. Total Soviets lost 352 000 people.
During the operations are widely used in tanks. In such circumstances they could not use a wide maneuver and become comfortable target for anti-tank vehicles Germans. It also led to high losses: two weeks fighting the Red Army had lost one third of tanks and SAU (self-propelled artillery units) that participated in the Berlin operation.
During the Soviet troops completely destroyed the 70 infantry, 12 tank and 11 motorized divisions of the enemy, captured about 480 thousand people.
Victory Parade in Red Square
May 9 at the Central Frunze airfield aircraft landed at Lee-2 with AI Semenkova crew that delivered in Moscow, an act of surrender of Nazi Germany.
On June 24 Parade held on Red Square on Victory. Rokossovsky command of the parade, took parade - Zhukov.
At the parade passed in review summary shelf fronts in the following order: Karelia, Leningrad, 1 Baltic, 3 st, 2 nd and 1 st Belarusian, 1 st, 4 th, 2 nd and 3 rd Ukrainian , the consolidated regiment of the Navy. In the regiment 1 st Belorussian Front particular column were representatives of the Polish Army. Ahead of the consolidated regiment commanders were fronts fronts and armies, Heroes of the Soviet Union bore the flags of famous units and formations.
The parade ended march 200 flag, throwing flags defeated German troops on the dais at the foot of the mausoleum.
Holiday in Europe and the U.S.
U.S., Britain and most Western European countries celebrate Victory Day on May 8. In America this holiday called VE Day, or Victory in Europe Day.
August 15 is celebrated as the victory over Japan (English VJ Day).
In World War II was dragged more than 60 countries, 110 million people were dressed in military uniforms, the war claimed 60 million lives, half of people - citizens of the former Soviet Union.
Some countries refuse to celebrate Victory Day, believing that she was taken unreasonably high price, and 9 May for them - the "day of mourning."