Thousand Caves of Ukraine - the opening of continuing
jokingly say that the first explorers of caves were old people, as in
underground tunnels they oblashtovuvaly a housing made of the
sanctuary, the place for offerings and burials. If serious, the first scientific exploration carried out under the earth three hundred years ago. As for Ukraine, then today is open more than a thousand caves and speleomapi continue to show new underground labyrinths.
Pioneers of cave research
its work in 1721 the Polish naturalist Gabriel Zhonchynski mentions a
cave near the village of Lower Kryvche (Borshchiv district, Ternopil
region). And in the next exploration makes it a little description: "Cave of the close door, so confusing that it can get lost. Somewhat
later, in 1785, entrance of several caves in Crimea describes the
Russian traveler, originally from Prussia Carl Hablits. Obviously, these researchers and can be considered first in Ukraine ...
... The term "spelunking" (from the Greek spelaion - Cave) appeared in Europe at the end of XIX century. Fourth
August 1893 at a meeting of the Congress of the French Association of
Scientific Research, this term has taken a local researcher Edward
Alfred Martel. In Ukraine, it was first used by a young geologist Valery Mahayev in 1937. He
developed the first zoning speleologickej Crimea, highlighting the
peninsula of karst caves, volcanic and anthropogenic origin. By the time of Mahayeva researchers have described the 31 cave on the peninsula.
Speleology a combination of modern science, sports and tourism emerged in the territory of Ukraine in the early 60-ies. During this time at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR worked complex karst expedition. In addition to five "regular" every summer to her, joined the "informal" groups of scientists from around the country. Expedition mainly worked on research Crimean caves ...
It was in the Crimea in 1962 the first All-Union rally speleologists. After his research activity has increased even more. Speleologists able to pass the cave, completely filled with water. Sportsmen sank to the bottom of the cave-wells to a depth of 500 meters.
The first small cave in the Carpathian Mountains were discovered in the postwar period. Researchers, including members of the Integrated karst expedition visited in the mountains about 35 caverns. In
the 60 years studied speleologists Solotvyna mine, and in 1968 he
founded here at that time united in the USSR Allergic Clinic ...
Currently Ukraine has opened away a thousand caves and grottoes. The vast majority of them located in two areas. Nearly 900 caves - in the Crimean peninsula and some 100 - in skirts (mainly in the Ternopil region).
Most Crimean vaults located within three mining complexes - Chatyr-Dag, Karabi-Yayly and Ai-Petry Yayly. The most famous cave in Crimea - Marble on Chatyr-Dag. Especially
it that the best all natural underground Ukraine equipped for
excursions, and, consequently, the most visited by tourists. The length of explored passages of the cave is over two miles, more than a kilometer - sightseeing tour ...
Before speleokompleksu marble is also equipped for visiting cave
Emine-Bayir-Hosar (she - Mammoth Cave), where he found and exhibited to
tourists ohlyadyn remains of ancient animals - mammoths, cave bear,
woolly rhinoceros. The same complex include raw cave: Tysyachoholovu, cold and Tryochku.
longest in the Crimea and uniquely beautiful cave Kizil-Koba (Red),
which is in the top of the Crimean largest rivers - Salgir. Inside the same cave (length over 20 kilometers) and flowing river. In the 12 completely covers the ground water moves underground, and the following facilities must wade in the water. The cave is open to visitors, it is even arrange trips to overcome siphons.
Another unique cave in Crimea is the Soldier Mine. This karst deepest mine in Ukraine. Currently, its lowest point is explored at a depth of 517 meters below the entrance. For the average tourist Soldier Mine practically unavailable. After all, for its passage to use special equipment. Cave suspended deep water and siphon.
Skirts observed high concentration of caves. Only one Borschevskom area of over 30. Here begins the world's largest gypsum cave - optimistic. Now the card affixed to the 230 kilometers of underground passages. Each
new study, conducted mainly discoverers optimistic - Lviv speleoklubov
"Cyclops" - adds a cave a few hundred or even several thousand meters
long. Visit this dungeon only speleologists professionals, as lovers of labyrinth too complicated ...
Cave Lake, half optimistic, there is a little north, in the same area Borschevskom. At
stake is deposited about 116 kilometers of tunnels, one third of which
are underground lake - the main decoration of the cave. In one of the halls of the cave, as in the optimistic, equipped with basic speleotabir. For ordinary tourists lake closed.
Ternopil region is characterized not only high cluster of caves, but also by how here speleologists care cellars. The biggest and most interesting caves declared protected areas, they are closed to outsiders. Tourists are also mainly play in Verteba, Crystal and Spice. Interest in the speleoklubov and organizations that deal with these caves ...
the large number of studies of underground passages, it is clear that
many of the caves - as the tail, and in Crimea - not yet open. Every year speleologists added to the list of new names. Last
year, for example, marked the opening of the Borshchiv district
underground passage, which the Ukrainian media mistakenly called the
longest cave in the world. In
fact, members of the Speleological section at Borschevskom museum found
a small course near the village Bilche-Golden Ternopil region ...
Open a cave called the museum - in honor of the museum, where working speleologists. Now the map has caused several hundred meters of its moves. Spelunker
as superstitious people do not want to propose in advance, but hopes
that the cave will bring many pleasant surprises and attachments will
be rewarded by an interesting job opening.
Caves are popular and ... vulnerable
Opening new cave, they learn something new. However, thus they say, beauty obezzbroyuyut dungeons. Indeed, the pershodoslidnykamy come adventurers and extreme, often ending vandalism and irreparable loss for nature. In
addition to the passive contribution to changing the appearance of the
caves, such as flooring or vytoptuvannya distribution in underground
environment for her atypical microorganisms distinguished visitors and
active attempts to leave their mark. In public open caves you can see inscriptions like "Vanya + Lena. Cave Vandals leave piles of debris, destroying unique crystals, stalactites and Stalagmite. So immediately after the opening speleologists zadumuyutsya on how to protect the underground beauty of unwanted visitors ...