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Головна » 2009 » Жовтень » 14 » Mikulichin?
14:53
Mikulichin?

Mikulichin?

Mikulichin - one of most in Ukraine villages by a slowness a 44 km, and also the oldest settlements about which it is mentioned documentarily in 1412 years. There is legend about the name of village: once in mountains with the army there was boyarin Mikula, which guarded a settlement from attacks. Just a hostile army surrounded a mountain on which Mikula was and began an attack. Mikula deservingly entered into a fight, however, there were considerably anymore opponents and boyarin with a song heroically lay down in a fight. In honour he was named this settlement.

 

A village begins to develop from times of gasket of hwy of 1825. Glass gutu which lasted to the end of ХІХ item, and also sawing economies, was here created. A village was exactly famous a sawing economy - already the XVIIІ item had a few sawmills which peasants worked on here. At the beginning of ХХ item there were four forest districts and three firms «Sobel'», «Sobel' and son» and «Mikulichin», that on this time was outstanding achievement. Popular enough was the sheep breeding which until now occupies a main place in life of peasants.

 

Developed villages also as a vidpochinkoviy cell with numerous vidpochinkovimi establishments and as a health-resort. In particular a settlement was famous by treatment a sheep whey.

 

There are quite a bit interesting objects in a village - as natural so rukotvornikh. One of them there is a church of Sainted Trinity of ХІХ item and bell tower of the XVIII item, which are at a road, almost in the meadle of village. Painting in a church was executed by Korniliy Ustinovich. A settlement is on territory of Natural National Park. On verge of villages of Mikulichina and Tatarova the most is located in Yaremchanskomu region waterfall «Hooke» on the small river of Zhenec'.

 

Today Mikulichin one of niz'kogirskikh of climatic resorts, the located for a 18 km from Yaremche is the point of output on the mountains of Yavirnik and Large Roketu.

People on territory of Mikulichina settled from time immemorial. By confirmation of it a stone kernel is found. First writing mention about a settlement - 1412r.

Territory of Mikulichina (ranishe 435 square kilometres) arrived at southward up to the spine of Montenegrin. Before a separation from him in 1927 independent societies of Vorokhti and Tatarova, Mikulichin was the most settlement of of that time Poland. Ya.Fal'kovskiy in the labour "Western pogranichchya of Gucul'schini" gives the names 46 prisilkiv of Mikulichina in obedience to governmental the document of 1856r.

Mikulichin is marked on the card of the French engineer Boplana in 1650r., where the detailed topography of of that time territory of Ukraine is first given.

On the governmental seals of Mikulichina in a 19-20 item represent a horse, sometimes loaded derev”yanimi bochivkami, t.zv. berbenicyami. He became the original coat of arms of naselennogo point. From of that time statistical data, horse here was in 5-10 times more than in pidgirskikh villages. Them often vinaymali habitants of other settlements for transportation of loads, in particular to Hungary. As wrote S. Vincenz: "Where a guzul is, there and horse".

 

In an inventory after 1700 marked, that 80 peasant economies were counted in Mikulichini, 6 pivdvorischnikh, 47 khatnikiv, 27 storekeepers and a few fishings. Peasants worked off a corvee, exhausting taxes paid. Fishermen to work in a lordly manor were not attracted, but everybody must was give for the year of 700 pstrugiv (to the trout), pay 2 zlotikh of contribution and rogovinu.

 

In 16 - to the middle of 17th an item on Galichina Prikarpatti, Bukovina and Zakarpatti increases oprishkivskiy motion. Historical sources are given by information, that at one time habitants of s. Mikulichina was included in oprishkivskikh detachments of Vasiliy Lungi, Ivan Squeaky, Grigory Dranki. The most bright page in oprishkivskiy motion was entered by glorious fugleman Oleksa Dovbush. In 1741 his detachment had a collision from mikulichancyami, which accompanied detachment of kutskikh merchants. In summer 1745r. oprishki fallen out with a rural rich from Vorokhti Mochernyukom. After death the body of Dovbusha quartered and spread on piles in the settlements of pokuttya and Gucul'schini, in particular in Mikulichini.

Information about a greko-katolicku church in Mikulichini is present from 1701, however built a temple here was before. The modern church of Presvyatoy Trinity is erected and sanctified in 1868 Its project was executed by an architect I. Chaykoveckiy. An iconostasis was painted by the known artist Kornilo Ustiyanovich, which represented itself in appearance sv. Yosafata. The researcher of church architecture G. Logvin named the bell tower of mikulichanskoy church a little masterpiece which was created by a hand exceptionally of talented master.

 

State oneclass school in Mikulichini is founded in 1862 Afterwards dvoklasna Ukrainian school began to function and three-class - Polish . Already in 1871 a postal government worked here.

 

One of the most first restaurants on Gucul'schini is remembered in 1879 in Mikulichini. He was named catholic - for certain, a proprietor was Poland.

 

Known the researcher of a particular region V.Klapchuk considers one of the oldest sawing enterprises in a region mikulichanskiy sawmill in the natural boundary of Foreschik, which functioned in 1787 Another sawmill was on mlinivci in the natural boundary of Fal'chi in 1842 Afterwards in a village worked state sawmill of ”Mikulichin”, sawmill of "G.Sobel' and son", factory of wooden mass "Beskid". In the last, in particular, pressed shaving for packing of glass and porcelain wares. In the middle of a 19 item Glass guta of G.Rogana functioned in Mikulichini, where made sheet glass and bottles.

For transporting of the forest from the natural boundaries of Polyanicya Chemigivska, Kopchin in 1910-1944 was built vuz'kokoliykaa length a 20,9 km By it also tourists used gladly, to examine the remarkable panoramas of near-by mountains.

 

In 1901 "Folk Gostinnicya" leased Lvov society in parokha oh.Tadeya Galaychuka villa near-by the railway station and opened the Ukrainian hotel, where a library worked with a reading-room. In summer the same year here such greatest writers rested as V.Stefanik and B.Lepkiy.

 

In 1875 in Mikulichini a political figure, publicist Michael Dragomanov, uncle of Lesi Ukrainian, gostyuvav in the house of Illariya of Gerasimovicha. As he remembered later, bought in Mikulichini of „beautiful gucul'skikh wares, most nashiynikh vipletiv from a necklace - fashion which my gave - relatives then allowed on Ukraine”. On one of portraits we see his niece Lesyu Ukrainian from a silyankoy bead on a neck.

 

Mikulichin in 1890 the English authoress of scotch origin M.Dovi visited. Here it lived whole month. Afterwards in the book "Girl in Carpathians" a scotsman acknowledged the clothes of peasants of Mikulichina charming, and especially charmed its sandals made of bark and sleeveless jackets.

 

on April, 22-23 in 1912 future prestolonaslidnik of Австро-Угорщини Charles Frans Gabsburg, which soon became cisarem Charles (1916-1918) and his wife duchess Zita from family Burbon-Parma, visited in Mikulichini. For a visitant hunt was here arranged on goturiv (wood grouses).

 

At the beginning of a 20 item in a village openly shop of arts and crafts of folk masters. Mikulichin since olden times was the cell of making of the fretted and instructed (t.zv.”pisanikh”) tables. Known the researcher of a particular region M.Klapchuk registered 120 such wares.By the acknowledged masters of the written tables, and also fretted skrin', arm-chairs there were P.Sorokhmanyuk, M.Zazul'chaki (senior and junior), Ya.Tefledzhuk, D.Veredyuk, M.Stefanyuk but other

 

In an intermilitary period travelers could stop on rest in Mikulichini in 3 stations of tourist, hotel of Zdislava Shera, resort hotel "Goverla", house of Health of printers Lvov, sanatoriums of Lvov academic schools. Near the last in 1938 a monument was set to the guardian of student to queen Yadvizi (borned near 1374-dying 1399).

 

In the first half of 20st. In Mikulichini such Ukrainian public organizations as „Education”, „Cut” worked actively, afterwards „Meadow”. The gucul'skiy bank of „Chernogora” and economic-point-of-sale Society of „Gucul'ska was here opened union”.

 

At one time in prisilku of Mikulichina Polyanicyakh Chemigivskikh legendary sotnik UGA, commander Gucul'skogo lived kuren of sichevikh shooters of Gric' Golinskiy. A native Mikulichina is Nick Domashevskiy, doctor of economic sciences, editor of magazine „Guculiya” (THE USA), which gave out in Chikago „History of Gucul'schini” in 3 volumes. In 40th. 20st.v fence surrounding the village of Mikulichina the Ukrainian insurgents operated actively, in particular boivka of UPA Kif'yaka George on pseudo „Rush” about.

 

In the last fourth of 20 st.v of Mikulichini functioned calculation camps a child rest. In the days of independence of Ukraine the row of resort hotels which answer the greatest rekreaciynim requirements is erected, actively green tourism develops with rest in rural farmsteads.

 

Materials about history of Mikulichina are kindly given the senior research worker of Museum of ecology and ethnography of edge of Carpathians Svitlanoy Flis.



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