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Головна » Статті » Свята України :: Праздники Украины :: Holidays » Folk festivals



Christmas crib in Volhynia on January 7. Among all the Christmas holidays celebrated in the folk tradition, perhaps, with the largest magnitude. Although the Orthodox Church on the significance quickly puts Christmas in second place, more than honoring Christ's resurrection, but the Ukrainian people enjoying fun and sincere and it is most severe in winter.

Maybe it's due to the fact that Christmas falls in winter, when our ancestors had no immediate agricultural affairs, may the days of frantic and threatening winds and frosts want to oppose them, carefree fun, can the common people with greater sincerity rejoiced the birth of Christ than Resurrection, which was preceded by suffering and death on the cross, may influence was the fact that Christmas is clearly "enshrined" in the calendar, while the date of Easter holiday "floats." An impact could be and modern history: during the atheistic anti-Christian festival "disguise" Christmas fun at New Year was easier than for the Easter issue of fraternization displays all workers in May days and celebrate the great victory.

Christmas in Ukraine
  Christmas prysvyachuvalosya from ancient times to God the Creator. This God of our ancestors is Svarog. That he sang the prayer in the winter sontsevorotu: Svaroga! You, who created light, yep you God of light and God there, Java and Navi, - these are for them in the truth. And yes this truth we will win the power of the dark and bring us to the good "(Book of Veles, table 15 A). These deep folk rituals praise of the newborn Sun (Dazhboh) were created by our ancestors praariyskymy. Therefore, we find many common motifs in Ukrainian Christmas Light mystery of ancient Indian song-glory Veda - the oldest of the Scripture on the ground. It is this commonality of origin certifying our Ukrainian carols cosmogonical ones.
  So Christmas was celebrated long before Christianity. The ancient pre-Christian calendar of our distant ancestors - the Slavs were pagan-oriented, according to most researchers, the annual cycle of the sun, which served as landmarks for the solstice days (sontsevorotu) and equinox. The most important holidays falling on a winter and summer sontsevoroty that were expressed, respectively, in the shortest and longest days. Winter sontsevorot with which connected the birth of a new sun, celebrated until 12 days. By this winter cycle in the traditionally entrenched two Slavic folk names, which sometimes coexist in some: "Yule", which prevails in the east of the eastern area, and Carols, Christmas carols or Christmas carol "which use Ukrainian, Belarusian, most South Slavs, and Poles.
  Christian Church exerted much effort to get rid of "pagan" ritual, to mark the celebration of Christmas these days, thus initiating dual belief. During the formation of the Christian church gradually ousted long holiday. And only in the V century Christmas Day firmly entered the lives of Christians. The discrepancy in the celebration of Christmas western and eastern churches, it's because they use different calendar systems - Gregorian and Julian. The Orthodox Church celebrates its January 7 (December 25, Old Style), and the Catholic Church - December 25 New Style.
   In "Christmas svyatok" is a whole galaxy of holidays: Christmas carol (or Holy Night), a holiday of sun (or Christmas), St. Mary, New Year (Malanka or Saint. Basil), Epiphany (or Theophany).
   Kolyada or Holy Night called many kutia. It carefully prepared. Generously covered table with 12 or more dishes required of them - Christmas kutya and stewed fruit.
   Next on Christmas Day - Holy Virgin. Especially revered women as it related to the Mother of God.
   January 14 Orthodox and Greek Catholics kutyu again preparing for this evening - New Year or Feast Melanky and Basil. Strongly hrystyyanizuvalosya and another great holiday - the Epiphany, which was called Epiphany. Epiphany vklyuchalaye three rituals: Holy Night, a festive divine service and blessing of water. Holy Night arranged after the post (it is called still hungry kutia kutia or third).
   The central action of baptism is a blessing of water. After a festive divine service, people went to the pond or river (and sometimes the well), where pre vydovbuvalasya hole in a cross. Cleric immersed in her cross, then the water considered blessed. People going into it in bowls and sprinkled the farm buildings, domestic animals, trees in the garden (hutsuly in this case did oat sheaf Wisp, okroplyaly them with holy water and tied each tree). In hreschensku night staring at the sky: the stars shine - to a good harvest. In hreschenskiy rituals clearly seen agricultural magic that reinforced the Christian symbolism: after the consecration of the water went through the hedges shepherds the faithful and draw a cross on the door, building a holy water. The next day (6 or 19 January) Koliada "hammer" arrows that mark the end serves svyatok winter.
   Baptism - is no less important than the Christmas holiday. Baptism - the first Christian mystery, the beginning blessed the combination of man and God. Baptism - our spiritual birth. I should say that historically this holiday vvelosya several churches even before Rizvo (although it seems that when Christians can not celebrate Christmas?). But it turns out, the resurrection of Christ or the Holy Ghost baptism, which marks the baptism and were more important than mere human birth of Jesus. But gradually hrystyyaska church began to connect the memory to the memory of the baptism and birth of the Savior. And 6 January was the double holiday birth, baptism and the Epiphany of Christ. But the inconvenience perform various rituals at the same time, in the first half of IV century, when Pope Julia, separated holidays.

Christmas in Ukraine
  In Ukraine, as in other countries, Christmas, holiday birth of Jesus, Sun of Righteousness (Holy Kipriyan spoke of Jesus as He is "true God and true sun" ("Where plow. Home. 35), John Chrysostom calls him" "Sun of Truth", which appeared to illuminate the ground, taken root in the soil pagan worship of the New Sun, the tillage of the New Year, which begins with the turn of the sun in the spring. Accordingly, the Christmas celebrations, closely correspond to beliefs in lucky INITIATIVES and magic acts, which would provide in the next year a good harvest. Given the importance that for the whole family of those magical, Christmas rituals, it must involve all adherents to the family, and not only alive, but and deceased. All must participate in the Holy Supper, before Christmas. So the holiday pryluchayetsya living and dead Memorial holiday, grandparents. In holy evening in general tend to focus zoseredkovuyetsya holidays and at Christmas it is just the Eucharist in the church and visit and hostyuvannya relatives and acquaintances with the appropriate entertainment and fun.
  Boxing Day was once called SHALLOW Virgin Lemkos VYMITNYM in the day, because that day went from house to house men (probably boys) and for the people there zamitaly girl that got by the hosts of "honorable" (ZNTSH. XXVII. Art. 45 in Bibliography) .
  With the start of Christmas is you can take modest. Actually this holiday in each pig farm pricked to nahotuvaty various meat dishes. For a rule to come together to visit, however, tried not to break visit neighbors, especially focused on women. If a woman or girl is going in the house first, then by all means "bring disaster, but because zaprymityvshy" unwanted guests ", adjacent door, and if the home to dinner or visiting fellow man, then tried to treat it.
  Then in the afternoon older men gathered in groups and young people began kolyadovat (in some regions of carolers led their bands even before - the late-night holidays). At the tail to do this only the second day of holidays.
Christmas crib in Volhynia Christmas Koljadnyc'ki bands sporyadzhaly mostly boys. They pre-selected band, that is, the manager, "mihonoshu", "goat", "shepherd of puhoyu so on. "Goat" clothed in wool splay outward casing prylashtovuvaly straw horns, tail and bell on the neck, in other regions had their differences, including accompanying band "Gypsy," "doctor," "Jew," "death with scythe", etc. . However, mandatory attribute should be moving star that ever wore the captain ("Birch").
  By accessing the court, requested permission to carolers, and when the owner zholoshuvavsya, began to play with Congratulatory songs-songs and humorous sketches. In poetic texts ospivuvalys master, mistress and their children, zychyly them happiness and health, and economy, that wealth and abundant litter. Instead, if the family had children who did not speak, so give it a drink of water from the ritual bell. It seems a little help "revive the sonorous voice." Women, so they grow big hemp accidentally poured "mihonoshu" water. If the house was a girl, she obdarovuvala each carolers apples and nuts.
  In some areas of Ukraine, except for boys, girls were gang. It was believed that the more carolers gives odvi-house, the family is more abundant year. Vinshuvalnykiv tried oschedryty respectively. The products and the young people gave money to "big evenings" that kept the January 8. It was purely a youth entertainment.

On Christmas Hrushevsky (retaining the original spelling):

By Korochunom - the shortest day of the year comes the turn of winter sun holiday sonyichnoho astronomical new year. It they've poured out more Christian Christmas - what was (in the ancient world) at present time provisions for hrystianyizatsiyi pagan holidays neonotal sun. At Christmas, because title passed Korochyuna. The old-same pagan holiday rituals had received from him under the influence of Greek-Roman culture and its New Year celebrations, carols piznyiyshu name (Roman calendae). It left slyidy The rich in modern svyatkovannyu Christmas, New Year, the Blessing of Water; syi slyidy hlyiborobskyy clearly indicate, the economic nature of the holiday: dinner among the sheaves, before the accumulated pile hlyibiv; desire vorozhennya harvest and offspring in the future to the year, invitations to kutyu Claus - definitely have is this character.

Ukrainian Christmas carol Christmas - a Christmas Holiday World and praise the Lord the Creator. In St. Carols and Supper is a generous basic components of old Ukrainian culture and religion - and the ideology of these festivals are referred to other festivals, religious rites and mysteries ...

Christmas Eve is the opinion of the people of a mysterious era Christmas World, once the man was born. The idea of presence of the Lord's Supper on Holy Mount of all the others. There is this Last Supper largest religious influence Ukrainian Christmas.

Kolyada and generous Dinner - Old Ukrainian as separate holidays, which last still from time immemorial in the form of nation Festive rites and mysteries - with its distinctive expression in the Festive songs: Christian holiday. Give these distinguishing features of Christmastide songs naypravdyvishyy and most complete image Saroukrayinskoyi religious ideology and highlight true meaning of Christmas Carols and Holy generous Dinner. What's more - they pryyavlyayut and most original Ukrainian culture and religion and, according to various property, indigenous Ukrainian.
Christmas crib in Volhynia

Recommended pohrebtysya on the site more thoroughly. In the mentioned here at work. Xenophon Sosenko also highlights the consonant words "Carol" with the Roman "calendae", but Fr. Xenophon Sosenko indicates that

    * Name Koliada kalyenda or kolyenda, and no shadow of the cultural significance that Rome calendae; that this name Kolyada even in perfect likeness to the heathen, adjacent to the Ukrainian ideolohichno Svyatorizdvyanyh ideas - and reaffirm that
    * Roman holidays, and especially calendae brumalia, could not have with Ukrainian Christmas carol nothing culturally, because Old Ukrainian celebration of Christmas is under review of cultural and historical far earlier than, and thus also the name of Christmas carol, which contains the entire contents ideolohichnyy Feast must be older than salendae.

Making Christmas Stars
   On board or plywood cut 8 Kutna star (using compasses, scissors, ruler and pencil). Then the angles (and a long handle) wrapped with colored paper or foil zakriplyayuchy tape. Behind the beat handle, front decorate other paper on top of it - Vitinanka with angels, decorate rain, every little bell adapts angles (such as leave and each wassailer) - can be found in stores for anglers. In the middle containing a small icon yakuosvitlyuvatyme bottom of a small flashlight bulb connected to batteries through copper wire.
   This is certainly not the only way and certainly not traditional:), and adapted to modern times.

We can not insert a few Christmas carols.

Good evening to you, Dear Master!

Good evening to you, Dear Master:
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
Cover the tables, and all carpets:
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
And put the cakes spring wheat:
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
They will come to you in three feasts
As guests: Rejoice!
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
Oh very first feast - then Christmas
Christmas: Rejoice!
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
And another same feast - Basil
Holiday: Rejoice!
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
And the third is the Feast - Holy
Jordanian: Rejoice!
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
Now that the first feast will send you
Consolation: Rejoice!
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
And the second feast will send you
Happiness: Rejoice!
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.
And the third feast will send us all
Fate: Rejoice!
Oh, Rejoice, O land;
Son of God was born.

Sow, sow, posivayu

Sow, sow, sow,
Happy New Year welcome you!
By the new year
To yielded better
Than last year!

Carol of the Bells, vedryk

Carol of the Bells, vedryk,
Give the dish,
Lump of gruel,
Ring sausages,
Reshettse oats
Carols and all!

I'm a little shepherd

I'm a little shepherd
Zahornuvsya in Kojushok
In Skripochka play
I congratulate all of you.
And you people, chuyte,
Koliada cook -
Apples, nuts
Kids for potishky.

Siem, viyem, posivayem

Siem, viyem, posivayem,
Happy New Year Greetings
Fortunately, the health
On New Year!
To you yielded better than last year.
Hemp in the ceiling,
The flax to the knee,
To you, the owners,
The President was not sick!

Holiday poem by Olesya Ovchar

Winter brought Yule!

Winter brought Yule!
Vbraly mouse short fur coats,
Took ZIRON'KU in paw
And went kolyadovat.
Do not forget, and flute,
To the song sounded calls:
New joy ... Good evening
All owners sedate!
Miniscule myshenyatko
Has wings - Angel
Povinshuye Fine Gazda:
Happiness, harmony, prosperity!

For guests Snow Grains
Rise in every house,
And the breeze in shparku dmuha,
To zbadorytysya spirit.
Even in the footsteps Morozko
Wears flowers in hand
And buckets of ice
Leaves on the window.

Every house, every mink
Rays touches the star.
So bright at this time
Walks joy on earth.

       Oles Ovchar, 2010 IG avoid swimming. Otherwise, according to Ukrainian-old residents in the village Bilyavyntsi guy who performed this role could grow a tail. " (Kurochkin p. 199.)

In addition to the aforementioned New Year rituals in historical sources in the last century recorded in Ukraine and ritual plowing. Schedruvalnyky New Year's Eve pulled the plow and do symbolic plowing snow and earth. Sometimes maskers on New Year brought the house or just plow Chepigy imitated and then plowing posivaly. This confirms the assumption that the new year in ancient times our ancestors were noted in spring. New Year rituals associated with plowing, posivannyam, obmolochuvannyam sheaf, followed the men or boys, since these studies were considered masculine.

Symbols of the holiday: Malanka, Basil, Goat, grandfather, grandmother, Crane, Gypsies, cat and other maskers, flowering cherry branch, DIDUKH glove with the seeds of rye and wheat.

Customs: People's Carnival with the performance and playing of songs long show, the principal actors who have Malanka, Basil, Goat, grandfather, grandmother, cat, doctor, Crane, Gypsies, mindful minding; deterrent trees honoring the hearth - a furnace; obmolochuvannya Didukh ; breaking Didukh (pumpkin) Ritual posivannya; burning Didukh and rituals associated with it.

Ritual meals: kutya, stewed fruit, Malanka, Vasily ", various meat dishes.

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Категорія: Folk festivals | Додав: vechervkarpatah (11-01-20)
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