In the Muslim religious holiday calendar dates a bit. In the period of Islam's Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad) forbade his followers to celebrate Muslim holidays and participate in them because, by participating in a religious holy man thus joins the rite of the religion which it arranges and conducts.
According to Muslim tradition, the believers who appeared to Muhammad and said that Jewish residents of Medina celebrating their holiday, and asked whether Muslims to join them. Prophet expressly forbade it to them, saying that Allah will appoint for a Muslim holiday best, and they will be preferred to God. So the Muslims were given two major holidays: Eid ul-Adha (Kurban Bayram) and Eid ul-Fitr (Ramadan Bairam).
Other memorable days of holidays are not considered initially, and on occasion they were no celebrations. But almost as soon as attention is given to such days as the Juma (Friday), the day of Arafat, Ashura day and night fate. They were identified as a zealous worship of Allah, and not as a time for festivities and fun. All other days, that humanity in our time, were considered memorable dates (new year beginning on AH (lunar calendar), Maulid, etc.), and for a long time in Islam in general is not marked.
If a secular holiday - a reason or excuse for carefree joy, merry pastime, according to Muslim understanding, celebration - an opportunity for each multiply many good acts that on Judgement Day will be compared with bad deeds, it is possible perevazhennya bowl their weights actions towards the good. Muslim holidays give believers an incentive for more diligent worship. Therefore, holiday, holy days and nights Muslims make special funeral prayer, reading the Koran and prayer, trying obraduvaty relatives, neighbors, all friends and strangers, visiting each other, distribute donations, give gifts, trying in any case does not offend anyone.
In Islam holiday called in Arabic - the language of the Quran, but there are parallel titles in languages other Muslim nations, particularly the Turkic languages groups that say the Tatars, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Turks, etc.
Muslim religious holidays are celebrated in strict accordance with the lunar calendar - "Hijra" and it leads to the annual shift of all holiday dates.
Also be aware that the countdown of days in the Muslim calendar is after sunset. The night preceding each day. The first night the new moon - the night following the last day of a month old. The second night is followed by the first day. Therefore, for example, 27-day Ramadan begins with sunset 30 October, and takes 31 October, in the next sunset.
Another day in the religious Islamic calendar is the Juma (Arabic - the day of collection) - Friday, called "the best day of the week.
Juma - a holiday, but not necessarily non-working day on Friday for Muslims. In fact, Juma is a day of rest and is celebrated weekly as in the Christian Sunday, and to Jews - Saturday. In most Muslim countries Friday - bank holiday, while in Turkey, where religion is separated from the state, a day off - Sunday.
The Qur'an says: "O ye who believe! When you call for collective prayer on Friday, want to Remembrance of Allah (to the sermon and namaz), leaving the trading business, it's better for you, unless you understand "(62:9).
In sacred hadith also says: "Jews granted Saturday, Sunday - Christians and Friday - Muslims. On that day they sent all the grace and good. "
Juma, according to Sharia, begins at sunset on Thursday and extended its event on Friday. So Friday is the holy day and the night before.
Err on Friday especially unacceptable. It's an insult to a sacred day to the mercy of the Almighty, referring to Juma. On this day, many times not only increases vozdayannya for well doing, but also punishment for the wicked deeds. Juma-prayer is obligatory (Fard) for adults, according to Sharia, men. In the hadith states that the omission of three Friday prayers without a valid reason (illness, etc.) are particularly prohibited.
Some of the Muslim lunar calendar - Hijra.
The word "Hidzhrat" in Arabic language often referred to as "going from one place to another, ie to move. Thus, "Hidzhrat - Relocation. The beginning of Muslim calendar associated with real historical events from the life of the Prophet Muhammad. The beginning of his pastoral work he refers to 610, and the Muslim calendar dates from the Prophet's migration from Mecca to the oasis Yasryb. Arriving in Yasryb Prophet (named after the city Prophet, ie Medina), most historians dates September 24, however, the lead 622 of the Hijra calendar began only in 637 was in the reign of Caliph Omar's second just ibn al-Khattab. Thus by the word of the Caliph as a starting point of a new era was taken not the day of arrival the Prophet in Medina, and 1 Muharram (first day of the month) that year. This day match of the year 622 July 16 on the Julian calendar.
At the core lies lunar Hijra year cycle. Islamic calendar built only on the change of moon phases. Therefore, it is purely lunar. Many ancient peoples - Babylonians, Jews, Greeks, Chinese - first used the lunar calendar, but later switched to the Moon-solar calendar system. Like solar, it consists of 12 months. Names of the Islamic calendar months remained the same as that of the ancient solar-lunar calendar, the Arab:
Months (odd - 30 days, even - 29):
1. Muharram - Muharram - forbidden, sacred. " This month was not allowed to conduct military operations and campaigns.
2. Safar - Safar - "Yellow". This title autumn months, when plants turn yellow and wither.
3. Rabi Al-Awal (Rabi "I) - Rabi-ul-avval - the first Rabi. Although in modern Arabic" rabi "means spring, so called in ancient autumn. This month was also the autumn.
4. Rabi Al-Akher (Rabi "II) - Rabi-ul-ahyr - the second Rabi.
5. Jumada Al-Awal (Jumada I) - Dzhumad-ul-avval - the word "dzhumada" comes from the verb "to freeze, freeze." It was a winter month.
6. Jumada Al-Akher (Jumada II) - Dzhumad-ul-ahyr - second dzhumada.
7. Rajab - Rajab - to refrain from violence. " Rajab - Month of walks and deter war.
8. Sha "ban - Shaban - from the verb" split. "In this month tribes sent hike.
9. Ramadan - Ramadan (in Persian) or Ramazan (in Turkic) - from the verb "to be hot." This month the earth and sun rozzharyuvalo fired plants.
10. Shawwal - Shavval - from the verb "be removed from the scene. Shavval - month castles.
11. Zul-Qa "dah - Zul-Kaada, the name comes from the verb to sit is in place." Zul-Kaada - month parking.
12. Zul-Hijjah - Zul-Hidzhzha - from the verb "make a pilgrimage" (29 days in normal years and 30 - in leap).
The beginning of each month of the Muslim calendar is determined monthly cycle, ie start of a new quarter - this is the beginning of the month. Lunar month lasts from the appearance of one new moon to the next, ie 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 3.8 seconds, so in one month 29 days, and in other - 30. Additional days of the month is prohibited, except for a single day, which serves to keep the new moon around 1 month. The day included a month-zul Hijjah.
Twelve lunar months are lunar year, according to approximate estimates, equal to 354 dobam. And since the real duration of lunar month is 29.5 days and a little more, and duration of lunar year is not 354 days, and 354.367. Since this is not an integer, then inevitably there is a problem vysokosiv, that simple alternation years containing 354 days, and years lengthened - for 355 days.
The cycle consists of 30 years: 354 in 19 normal and 11 day leap for 355 days. Leap years 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16.18, 21, 24, 26, 29. An extra day is added to the last month. The Muslim year is always less sunlight: in 10 days if a leap Muslim and sunny plain; to 11 days if both simple or leap years, and even for 12 days if the Muslim year is simple and sunny - a leap.
The Muslim year is not tied to the seasons, months, migrating all the pores of the year, resulting in the beginning of the year, for example, may fall on the summer months of the Gregorian style, but after a while - for the winter.
Muslim lunar calendar (AH) at the beginning of the XXI century.
Start the new year by
Muslim lunar calendar according to date
1 Muharram 1426 February 10, 2005
1 Muharram 1427 January 31, 2006
1 Muharram 1428 January 20, 2007
1 Muharram 1429 January 10, 2008
1 Muharram 1430 December 29, 2008
1 Muharram 1431 December 18, 2009
1 Muharram 1432 December 8, 2010
1 Muharram 1433 November 27, 2011
1 Muharram 1434 November 15, 2012
1 Muharram 1435 November 5, 2013
1 Muharram 1436 October 25, 2014
1 Muharram 1437 October 13, 2015
Each month begins with New Moon, under which in Islam means the location is near the Sun and Moon and the day when a young sickle moon will be visible at sunset. Astronomical New Moon does not necessarily mean the beginning of one of the Hijra month. The moon moves on the celestial sphere in a very difficult path, consisting of 223's of different orbital ellipse with different parameters, and although New Moon can be calculated very accurately predict the actual crescent visibility more difficult. It depends on factors such as weather, atmospheric optical properties and location of the observer. So it is very difficult to predict in advance when a new month begins.
Currently there are two views on the issue of defining the beginning of the month: Some Muslims consider the local visibility of the moon, while others rely on the testimony of reputable people in the Muslim world. Islam allows for both possibilities, but this leads to a divergence time earlier this month.