The streets Lychakiv necropolis
Hundreds and thousands of tourists annually visit one of the oldest in Europe Cemeteries. And the force that overcomes the fear of death, let the ancient and alien, which induces zachudovano alleys roam the cemetery, looking at tombstones - Beauty.
By imperial order ...
Hardly any of the Lviv magistrate cared for the aesthetic component in the distant 1783, when by order of Emperor Joseph II was eliminated prytserkovni all cemeteries within the city. Decision is motivated health standards adopted in the XVIII century Enlightenment.
For significant even at the time of the four identified areas of land outside the city. Galician capital divided into stations, and downtown residents and section IV got old cemetery on the outskirts Lychakiv (transformed from Luetzenhof), where in the XVI century from the buried dead Maurois. It officially opened in 1786. Then the cemetery held the current field 6, 7, 9,10 and 14.
In downtown lived and died far from poor. This is why the first years of its existence Cemeteries cemetery turned into a major city. Such status cemetery survived until now. Buried here only good citizens: priests, politicians, military. That was until the post-war time when Soviet authorities opened the elite cemetery for mass graves. Looting and vandalism, violent blooming blossoming: the legend of the burial of an entire family in a gold magnate (allegedly) did not give peace shoes asylum gravy. Particularly affected Dal'nya of cemeteries. Sometimes in the morning employees found the cemetery just on the paths of the cemetery coffins buried. A fence most of the graves became prey for hunters ferrous metals.
And back in earlier times. Lychakova peculiar popularity was so great that several times (in 1804, 1808, 1856) had to expand the cemetery - and now an area of 42 hectares. By the way, turn Cemeteries of the city dead in a holiday decided to live back in 1856. And a university botanist Carl Bower vporyadkuvav territory here paved paths and alleys. And with the dismal kingdom of death put an original fleet of melancholic and romantic. Park is rich in great classicist sculpture authorship Witwer Hartmann, Anton and Johann Shimzeriv, later work Julian Markov, Tadeusz Baroncha, Leonardo Marconi.
The streets of the dead
In Lychak easy to get lost. Few even of Lviv boasts that handles 86 fields Cemetery. First, it is easy. Get off at 7-m-m or 2 tram to the streets in explicit form through the neo-Gothic gate, built in 1875 (at the entrance have to buy a ticket to the cemetery) - and before you a few rides. You can confine the most popular places you can own itinerary.
A few minutes to review flashy chapels that surround the area near the entrance gate (mausoleum Sukhodolskiy, Kyselkiv, Kshechunovychiv, Adamskyh, and Morovskyh Lodynskyh) - and more are on your own.
Left - Field 1, a kind of pantheon of greatest Lviv, burial nineteenth century. There are writers, artists and scientists. Few people know, but the original burial Franko found here, in the family tomb Svachynskyh. In the vicinity of the first 59-m box - grave historian John Krypyakevych (1886-1967 years) and writer Irene Wilde (1907-1982).
Pantheon Lychakova this section also called a crowned eagle obelisk rebels Julian officials abroad (project Tadeusz Baroncha). His poetry dedicated to this hero of the defense of Warsaw in 1831rotsi Adam Mickiewicz. Died officials abroad in 1887th in Florence, and his remains transported to Cemeteries in nine years.
Benchmarks for many (5 field near the central gate) is a sculpture of masons, that "rock suites dandruff" on the grave of Ivan Franko (sculptor Sergey Litvinenko). Opposite - monument "arouser Russia" Markian Shashkevych. If francs from the grave to pass right through the fourth field to 57 th, the participants come across the cemetery years 1830-1831 Polish revolt. If you take a left at the monument Archpriest Gabriel Kostelnik (1886-1948), find ancient burial cemetery (fields 6-10) - priestess of the kingdom lakrymariumamy (ritual vessels for the tears) and the sad death of geniuses. Way to meet the neo-gothic funeral Armenian archbishop. Why is always about them, tourists from most cameras.
It seems that areas near the gates - the richest of the famous names. Vladimir Ivasyuk, author of "Red Ruth. Maria Konopnicka, poet, author of the popular fairy tale about orphans Maris. Alexander Battle, historian, director of the Lviv Archives, a legendary figure in modern local lore. This he described the first locks of Galicia. Stefan Banach, a math professor. Sigmund Gorgolewski, architect, built by the Opera Theater. It was an interesting story associated with it.
For Opera Gorgolewski awarded the Order - a unique case for Austria-Hungary. And driven into an underground concrete tunnel Lviv Poltva river, over which rose-beautiful theater, almost spoil the reputation of the master. House settled on half a meter, cracked wall near the stage. Gorgolewski died suddenly, allegations and rumors of his suicide: he said, he feared for his creation, could not bear the reproach of Poltva. Over time it turned out, on a temporary natural subsidence structures ...
Legends and stories Cemeteries
Another remarkable site next door - the mausoleum of vodka magnate Adam Józef Bachevsk, built in Neo-Renaissance style in 1911. When the owner of the title "Supplier of the imperial-royal" deathly ill, he specially ordered in Paris cunning device by which the death ... independently get to his place of eternal rest. Hearse allegedly was driving behind the corpse and the coffin Bachevsk vlihsya already at the cemetery - all with the same device ...
On 70 field has a grand mausoleum - Felix Barchevskoho, erected by his son Peter, Vladimir Probus, the richest man in Podolia. Cause-crypt - now the only reminder of the fabulous wealth of this family. After a Barchevskyy left to charity and science 700 000 guilders in cash: 50 000 in scholarships to students of Lviv and Krakow University, 500 000 - an annual award for artistic and historical works, 30 000 - dowry to poor girls, 15 000 - Lviv Conservatory students etc.. And if anyone thought the descendants of the patron dispute a will, his legacy would be immediately denied.
Nearby - one of the most poetic of tombstones. Sleeping young woman Jozef Markovska who died in 1877, draws strange looks and generates transfers, which for some reason it is called Barbara and apply several versions of her death. For one, she was an actress and died during the performance. Another - otruyilasya when I heard that the beloved betrays her. In Poland there are sources mention that the man buried there at all, Zborowski Stanisław ...
More than 300? 000 buried more than two thousands tomb, almost five hundred sculptures, including a significant portion vysokomystetskyh - statistics cemeteries. The oldest gravestones are dated 1787 and 1797 years. Among the newer tomb also happen real masterpieces, such as leggy bronze Orpheus, which sadly touches the strings of his lyre (tombstone opera singer Salome Krushelnytska). Tombstone is unusual: at the doctor Jozef Ivanovich bust ever on the watch dogs brought to his Pluto and Nero. There is a modest funeral, but unusual history, such as the tomb Franciszek Zaremba. This Kostyushka Army soldier died at 112 years of age.
Since 1990 Cemeteries has the status of historical and cultural reserve. City of the Dead is not half a million "population" now rarely makes new "residents", but there are exceptions: here are buried the remnants of Georgy Gongadze. In 2000, thousands crowd here conducted the funeral of the composer Igor Bilozir.
Special theme - war memorials. Their number: burial of soldiers of the Red Army Memorial liberation of the Ukrainian people nearby - so-called "graveyard Eagles" (Polish military burial 1918-1920). There are graves of victims of terror and secret police in 1941 (box 82). Rest in a mass grave 205 Ukrainian, 21 Pole, 6 Germans, 14 Jews, 5 Russians.
At a cemetery record book
Cities like dead live life like city living. Born there and die. Rarely the case - the cemetery, whose history includes more than two centuries. In such a place of tombstones, lives, legends and miracles are sometimes excessive. Well here, take a look ...
Some students before tests and exams go for advice, others - on Cemeteries. By Nicholas Charnets'kogo. They say during the sessions of the earth on the grave of the Greek Catholic bishop rotsi1 beatification in 2001, had repeatedly dosypaty. Students believed that the martyr, whose remains perepohovaly on Lychak in 1960, must help the earth on his tomb has healing properties. The same thought and some patients are accurately find the burial of Nicholas Charnets'kogo among thousands of others. Near towels decorated with Maltese Cross clock lusted exceedingly candles, led to a modest grave marker.
History of Arthur and Wanda
A Lychakova most popular legend about love. Its heroes - famous Polish artist Artur realist Hrother (1837-1867) and his bride Wanda Monnet. Quotidian history. Getting on the ball, walking alleys Lychakova where Arthur admitted that he would be buried here, the birth of sympathy ... That sympathy has grown hot love. And if poor, sick with tuberculosis Hrother died in France, which went as would say now, "labor", 17-year-old Wanda sold all her jewelry and brought a coffin with the body of her beloved Pere la Chaise-Lviv. She also painted a little, and sketch its famous sculptor Paris Filippi prepared tomb Hrotheru. But money is not taken by him. A medallion portrait of her beloved Wanda produced manually. Girl sad figure at the tomb of the artist surrounded zusibich standard modern gravestones. And tourists, especially Polish, tradition is kept right place, bringing fresh flowers.
Here, at the Lviv necropolis, you can find modest tombstone with the inscription "Wanda Monnet. 1850-1923. This guide canvas rather sad history of ghost stories for Arthur and Wanda, who like someone saw the moon in the night. Love Story without Hepp-end itself is like asking about the afterlife continue ...
1 In 1945, Bishop was taken to "Sybirlahu" Mary near Kemerovo region, later to Vorkuta in the Komi Republic. Only official data survived 600 hours of interrogation and torture, visited thirty different prisons and camps. As terminally ill in 1956 received permission to return to Galicia, where secretly continued pastoral work. Even during his lifetime he was considered a holy man. He died in 1959. He was buried in Lviv Sknylivskom Cemetery in 1960 - reburied at the Lviv, 4 July, 2006 - in the temple svyaschennomuchenika Jehoshaphat.