Holy Cross, a Christian feast on the remembrance of finding Saints Queen Helena of the True Cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified, and Exaltation of his honor and for public worship. Celebrated 14 (27) September. The Orthodox Church - Hospodske dvonadesyate holiday. It is the only holiday that has received start simultaneously with the event itself, which it is dedicated. Exaltation of the first celebrated in the church in Jerusalem at the beginning of IV. finding himself at the cross. The sources mention different dates of this event - 313, 326. The most reliable evidence is Alexandrian Chronicle VI. That puts him until 14 September 320 years. According to legend, Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine the Great in 325 went to Jerusalem to find the cross on which the Lord was crucified, and the burial place of Christ. As a result of excavations at the site of the temple of Venus was found three crosses. To find out which of them the Lord was crucified, crosses in turn pinned to a deceased person, when they put the third cross, dead alive again. From the accumulation of large numbers of people, not all could see and kiss the Cross, then Patriarch of Jerusalem, Macarius, and rose to vidvyschennya vozdvyh Cross so that people could see him. This event was underlies liturgical Growth of Cross. Particles tree True Cross were sent throughout the empire.
Congratulations on the Cross in 335 was connected renewal Resurrection church, built by Constantine the Great to the location of the Cross. Jerusalem church committed these holidays every year with great solemnity. According to Western prochanky in Jerusalem late IV. Silvia Akvitanky and church historian Sozomena (V cent.) Celebration in Jerusalem lasted eight days, and daily service was held in various locations in the cluster set of pilgrims. Churches were decorated as well as at Easter and Epiphany.
Especially widespread celebration and feast of the Exaltation received after finding the Cross by 628 to make peace between Byzantium and Persia. Holiday World was called Exaltation of the True Cross and that is common to all churches of the World Church. May 3 - Making the holy day of the festive tree Emperor Irakliy in Jerusalem - was celebrated in the Western church from the VII century. as "day to find the Cross."
Exaltation has Forefeast day (September 13), and seven days pislyasvyatkuvannya. Leavetaking - 21 September. Because the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross service is, in this day belongs to observe strict fasting. After Evening Cross submitted and relies on the throne, at Matins, after the great hymns, cross out from the altar, lies in the middle of the temple to worship, in Synodical churches and monasteries is a special work of the Exaltation of the Cross.
Written based on:
Bolshaya Encyclopedia Cyril and Mefodyya, 2001 (author AA Krasheninnikova).
The historical content of the oldest Christian holiday dvonadesyatoho explained differently, and thus usually refers to three events that occurred at different times, but the combined total shrine - a cross.
On the first of these developments, says church historian Eusebius 'work' Life of Constantine. " During the struggle of the Roman Emperor Constantine with his co Maksentsiyem before the decisive battle on the road Flaminiyeviy (311 year) when the force exceeded the strength of the army Maksentsiya Emperor Constantine saw a radiant sun cross with the inscription: "This wins!" Saw the cross and his army. At night, the emperor appeared in a dream Jesus Christ and said to make a military flag with a cross on the model he had seen in heaven. Constantine did so. Having received the victory over Maksentsiyem, the emperor commanded to put his hand in the statue erected in the main square of Rome, this flag and surrounded by his great veneration. Constantine took the Christians under his patronage and faith of Christ declared the state religion of the Roman Empire. He abolished the death penalty by crucifixion, and passed laws in favor of the Christian Church.
The second event - the main, his church tradition takes the Exaltation of vacation - was also at the time of Constantine the Great. His mother, Helen, being already in the 80 years age, half of the Christian faith worrying and complaining that the place of the suffering Savior and other relics are in oblivion, with the consent of the son in 324 year journey began in Palestine, visited Jerusalem and there he found the True Cross . Patriarch Macarius of Jerusalem went on increasing and people began to show Helena found the cross, vozdvyhayuchy, that is, raising its top. After finding the Cross (326 year) in different places they built temples to honor him. One of them has established itself in place Helen finds the cross in Jerusalem. Building it was completed in 335 year dedication on 13 September and the next day, September 14, a holiday Holy Cross.
The third event is related to the VII century and associated with prolonged struggle with the Byzantine Empire, Persia. In 614, the Persians attacked the Palestine, which belonged to Byzantium, Jerusalem and looted along with other prey, and took sanctuary - Cross, Cross, have been in captivity 14 years. In 628, the emperor Heraclius defeated the Persians and returned the sanctuary. Cross brought to Jerusalem, and the emperor himself, introduced him to the temple. On the occasion of the return of the Christ of a solemn prayer service during which the Patriarch again vozdvyh people cross.
Parts of the holy tree is now located in different councils.
Celebration of the Exaltation of the Church takes nine days: the evening of September 13 to September 21 (under art. Art.) Or even before 27 September and 5 October (on the new. C...) Lent should be observed on the day and Exaltation of the True Cross (14/27 September). On the day of the Exaltation allowed to eat with vegetable oil (dairy, eggs and fish can not eat)
On this day carried a very ancient rite - the Cross. Sign of the Cross since prehistoric times was a symbol of the sun. It was believed that the Exaltation it emits a security force. The peasants massacred crosses of wood, were criss-cross branches of mountain ash, drew crosses in the places they wanted to save from evil spirits: in the bin, barn.