Day of Ukrainian Cossacks
Celebrated in Ukraine by the Decree of the President (№ 966/99, of 07.08.1999), in Feast of the Blessed Virgin Veils.
Seventh consecutive year Ukraine will mark the Day of Ukrainian Cossacks, which coincides with one of the greatest Christian holidays - Protection of the Blessed Virgin. August 7, 1999 President, given the historical significance and merits of the Cossacks in the approval of the Ukrainian state and its significant contribution to the current process of nation building, determined that the date of his decree.
In Ukraine there is no more important factor that was, and center, and a crossroads, and the contents of the vast majority of social processes, and more important component of national and territorial consolidation than Cossacks. It is this phenomenon contributed to the development of such a lifestyle Ukrainian nation, which helped him survive in the absence of not only their own state, but in times of total destruction of all national, the original. Over the past three and a half centuries the Ukrainian people rose three times to fight for the establishment of national independence.
The first outbreak of a powerful revival of their own statehood coincided with the Cossacks. A second attempt to create a state of Cossack traditions of democracy and equality have made during the revolutionary struggle of 1917-1920. Third - in our time. In the late 80-ies of XX century. interest in its past, and the genetic memory is close to the intensification of political life in Ukraine resulted in the emergence of the Cossacks of public entities; Cossack fraternities (1984), which in 1989 turned into a hut Donetsk of the Ukrainian Cossacks Sports School Cossack Art Battle gopak in Lviv (1985) ; Zaporizhia Cossack society "Zaporozhye (1990)," Cossack society Kiev region "(1990), etc. In the summer of 1990 was celebrated the 500 anniversary of the first written mention of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Special scale commemorative events were observed on about. Khortytsya in Zaporizhzhya with. Kapulovka on Sicheslavschina. This gave impetus to the creation of a number of regional organizations of the Ukrainian Cossacks - Carpathian Sich (Lviv), Woodland camp (Zhytomyr), Carpathian Sich (Ivano-Frankivsk region), Kalmiusskaya Palanca (Donetsk region), Bukovina Sich (Chernivechchina), Kherson kosh, Volyn Sich, Sich Transcarpathian, etc. Their members have actively supported the democratic process and the establishment of an independent Ukrainian state. October 14, 1991 at the inaugural All-Ukrainian Cossack Rada was proclaimed the establishment of a single all-Ukrainian public organization of Ukrainian Cossacks, which brings together all the regional structure of the Cossacks of Ukraine and the Ukrainian diaspora. On the occasion of 10 anniversary of the beginning of the Cossack movement September 16, 2000, in Kiev the founding congress of the Cossacks of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Until 1995, the processes of revival of the Cossacks in Ukraine met with some resistance to certain state structures: the provocations during the Cossack happy in Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky (1992), the detention of Cossack leaders in commemorating Sagaidachnogo Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (1994), prohibition of burial with the participation of the Cossacks of Patriarch Volodymyr (Romaniuk) near St. Sophia Cathedral (1995), etc.
And yet, during 1990-2004, the Ukrainian Cossacks made a significant contribution to the actual implementation of the national idea in Ukrainian society.
Given the historical significance and merits of the Cossacks in the creation of Ukrainian statehood and a significant contribution to the modern process of state building, Ukraine's president has issued several decrees that directly relate to the Cossack movement, and November 15, 2001 was taken position on the National Programme for the revival and development of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 2002 - 2005. The purpose of the National Programme is to further the development and adoption of the Cossacks as a social force capable of significantly affect the process of consolidation of society. It involves the participation of Ukrainian Cossacks in military-patriotic education of youth; creation, revival, restoration and protection of protected sites and facilities, conducting educational, cultural and pro-svitnitskih events, research, advocacy and publishing activities, organization of tourism, sports, exercise economic, environmental and international activities.
At today recorded about a dozen Ukrainian public organization of the Ukrainian Cossacks, and more than five hundred regional, district, urban and rural Cossack formations. Among them: "Ukrainian Cossacks" (1991), "Union of Cossack organizations of Ukraine" (1999), "The Cossacks of Ukraine" (2001), "Joint Cossacks of Ukraine" (2003) and others now in their ranks, they account for almost 200,000 people.
Since 1991 permanently organized horse trips "Cossack ways, since 1992 - foreign trips Cossack seagulls" Sacred Veil "to the shores of France and England, in 1996 in Kiev every year a festival-martial arts tournament" Cossack Glory " since 1999 in Kiev hosts an annual national festival of martial arts, and in Dnepropetrovsk - Ukrainian Cossack sea-round championship. Periodically, the regatta starts Memory 1. Sulfur on the route Kiev-Kiev-Bosphorus. In 2001 the Federation of Ukrainian Cossacks established a duel and the International Federation of combat hopak.
Functioning research institutions to study the Ukrainian Cossacks: Research Institute of Cossacks at the History Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (since 1996) and Zaporozhye State University (since 2000) and its subsidiaries operate in Donetsk. Nikopol, Odessa. A scientific conference: "The Cossack sources in Odessa," Modern Cossack pedagogy "in Kiev," Problems of the Ukrainian Cossacks as public institutions "in Cherkassy," Cossack in pedagogic system of modern education "in Sumy and others were created as educational institutions: Institute Ukrainian Cossacks at the Kharkiv State Pedagogical University. Skovoroda (2002), National University of Cossack culture in Donetsk Art Museum (2002), Ukrainian Cossack Military Institute. Prince Svyatoslav at the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management (2003).
In many regions of Ukraine are Cossack schools, high schools, youth and children's regional organization, "Young Sich (Zaporozhye, Sumy, New Kakhovka). "Sich (Kiev)," Falcon "(Ternopil, Nikopol)," The Cossack Circle "(Kharkov), etc. Prepared by a special detachment of Cossacks' apprenticeship at the Donetsk Institute of Physical Education, set up in Odessa squad assist the border service, as well as operate permanent camp Cossack training. Preparations for the opening of the Ternopil Cossack Lyceum. D. Baida-Vishnevetzkogo with heavy military and physical training. Ukrainian Cossacks cares Borznenskoyu boarding school in Chernigov. Started the constant Ukrainian historical competition among students in secondary schools "Cossack state."
Cossack culture, revive and promote professional and amateur artistic and creative teams: "The Cossack fun" (Kiev), "The Cossack Mama" (Cherkassy), "The Cossacks Podolia (Khmelnytsky)," The Cossack way "(Dnepropetrovsk), the choir Zborowski camp them. I. Bohun (Ternopil), "Black Sea" (Odessa), "pirates" (Donetsk region), "The Wind" (Zhytomyr), "Milky Way" (Cherkasy region), the orchestra Belotserkovskaya Sich (Kiev region), the choir Kitsmanskiy Sich (Chernivechchina) and others in 1997 in Kiev the World Festival of the Arts of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Since 2000 in Ternopil, annual festivals, nationwide surveys Cossack song "Baida", and from 2002 on the territory of Donetsk is Ukrainian festival "Cossack race - dumb translation.
Published nationwide and regional periodicals: magazines - "Getman", "Kozatska happy", "Cossacks of Ukraine", "new camp", the newspaper - "Freedom", "Cossack Herald," Faith and Freedom "," Ukraine Cossack " "The Cossack nation," Cossack Circle "(Zaporozhye)," The Cossack ring "(Zhytomyr)," Bogdanov Region "(Cherkasy region)," Kozatska homeland "(Dnipropetrovs'k)," The Cossack timpani "(Rivne region)," Bug Cossack "and" Cossack state "(Mykolayiv)," Lugar "(Lugansk)," Cossack Glory "(Kherson), etc.
During 1992-2004 he Ukrainian Cossacks managed to restore many old Cossack churches, among which St. George's Cathedral Vydubychi monastery in Kiev, with the assistance of the monuments hetman - B. Khmelnytsky (in Odessa), I. Vygovskogo and I. Sa-moylovichu (in Zhytomyr) Sagaidachnogo (in Kiev), Mazepa (in Galati, Romania), Colonel Igor Bogun (in Vinnytsia), Ataman A. Holovaty (in Odessa), etc. A project for construction in Kiev pantheon Hetman of Ukraine and the Ukrainian Cossacks Walk of Fame. Ukrainian Cossacks has repeatedly defended the Cossack shrines in Trahtemirove, Mizhhiria on about. Khortytsya and territories Bug-Gardovskoy Palanca (Mykolayiv), etc.
The main challenges now facing the Ukrainian Cossacks: interaction with the authorities on the formation of state policy in the revival and development of historical, patriotic, economic, cultural traditions of the Ukrainian Cossacks, restoration and development of the principles of customary practices of the Ukrainian Cossacks as an expression of lifestyle, activity and behavior of Ukrainian people, the revival and development of Cossack economic activities, creation of Cossack Siches, Palanok and settlements as centers of revival and development of traditional forms of Cossack self-government, facilitate the preparation of youth for military service, military training of the Ukrainian Cossacks, the promotion of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, Border Troops, the Customs Service and civil defense. Signed a cooperation agreement with the Society of Ukrainian Cossacks facilitate defense of Ukraine, which held several joint events: the commemoration of the battles of Berestechko, Yellow Waters, Pilyavtsami, Zborov, Konotop, winning Sagaidachnogo by Hawtin, Chertomlitskoy base camp, etc. In 2001 an agreement was signed on cooperation between Ukrainian Cossacks and the Order of Malta, which is one of the oldest associations of chivalry in Europe. In 2003, the leadership of the Ukrainian Cossacks signed a memorandum of friendship and cooperation with representatives of the Russian Cossacks and concluded agreements with international troops Cossack Guard (Belarus).
Under the Charter of Ukrainian Cossacks - a successor without exception the historic branches of the Ukrainian Cossacks, who adhered to the principles of statist restoration of independence of Ukraine. This fact was confirmed by transmission kleinods from the Ukrainian Free Cossacks (which he emigrated, in 1923, operated in Germany and Austria since 1960 - in the U.S.) in the General Office of the Ukrainian Cossacks, which was held in August 1996, today there are subdivisions Ukrainian Cossacks in Austria, the USA, Russia, Australia, Britain, Canada, France, Germany and Argentina.
The first modern Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks in the 1991 - 1992 he was Vyacheslav Chornovil - a prominent statesman and political figure, changed his major-general APU, MP Vladimir corn. On the Big Board in October 1998, the hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks was elected to the Guard, Major General, MP VI Bilas. In 2000 he headed the Ukrainian Cossacks, and a group of athletes who first landed in the history of the North Pole and established there the flag of the Ukrainian Cossacks. This action has received great attention in the Ukraine and the world.
Despite the whole process of modern Cossack revival is not yet good dynamics. This to some extent contribute to: the absence of the Law of Ukraine "On Ukrainian Cossacks, the artificial expansion of Cossack structures, the impact on the Ukrainian Cossacks from diverse political forces and ideologies, a certain dependence on the individual branches of government and economic elites, the different confessional orientation of the members of Cossack organizations, personal ambition and confrontation some Cossack leaders, etc.
Revival and further development of Ukrainian Cossacks are possible only when its active work. External and, in fact, the revival of the Cossacks quaker some tangible consequences will not give: that history can be reborn only as a farce. This process is only possible on the basis of the achievements of modern social development, social science. Only under such conditions can work today in the interests of our people under the current legislation the customary law of the Cossacks, and are able to revive his powerful in its potential historical, patriotic, economic, and cultural traditions.
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Authors-compilers are grateful to the Director of the Research Institute of the Cossacks at the History Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine T. Chuhlib for help with this article.