Job Irina Sardak
January 1. Official and popular holiday early next year, the first day of the year. One of the most loved people holidays. Revered and at the state level (presumably through its political and ideological neutrality). One of the main festivals not only Ukrainian, but also many other nations. Although not endowed with significant experience in building socialism, the country of European culture-especially at times not even notice the limit of two years, actively preparing for Christmas or leaving after that.
In the countries of the European culture of New Year is celebrated on January 1. In Ukraine the New Year was introduced at the Russian Tsar Peter I in 1699. Well, but even for this Ukrainian Peter I do not really rush.
In countries where adopted monthly or monthly-solar calendar, New Year falls on different dates of the solar year.
Quote on the New Year could pile up sacks, so we do not stand. We represent a little background information.
Christmas card site "from holiday to holiday," In ancient Slavs, as in many agricultural peoples of Europe, year to start in spring. After the beginning of Christianity, the church became public on September 1. Since 1700, Peter I of Russia introduced to the January calendar, but in Ukraine under the influence of Lithuania and Poland, which in XIV-XV centuries. captured most of its territory, tradition celebrate the New Year January 1 existed since the late XIV century. although not recognized for a long time people.
Traditional Ukrainian Christmas ritual - a winter holiday, including the old style stand out December 25 (Christmas), January 1 (New Year), January 6 (Baptism).
New style (Gregorian calendar), calendar system, introduced in 1582 the Roman Pope Gregory XIII in place of the old style (Julian calendar). In the USSR this calendar introduced from 14 February (1 February, Old Style) 1918
Julian year was longer than the original 11 minutes 14 seconds (for 128 years it was 1 day).
At the time of calendar reform in 1910 dobam dorivnyuvalasya error. In the nineteenth century .. difference increased to 12 days in the XX and XXI centuries .. its duration - 13 days. So Shevchenko was born February 25, 1814, Old Style. With this new style is March 9, 1814 Such calculations can do just experts.
The reform of Peter I
Peter I assembled the New Year in Kukuyeviy settlement, where foreigners settled Moscow, and later - in Europe, where he was, in modern speak, on probation. Young holiday mesmerized the monarch, and he decided to introduce a "Europe" at home, and as usual we have conducted, in a big way. "Sovereign commanded" - happened. Christmas tree, fireworks, festivities - which is it home to us today, like the original. Offer the same decree, which we regularly do have 3 century (the original language):
"Great State cite to say: It is known him a great ruler, not only, that in many ways Privatbank Christian country, but also in the Slavic nations, which with our Eastern Orthodox tserkovyu Quantity sohlasnы everyone, as: drawing dies, moldavы, serbы, dalmatы, bolharы and feature shows ego poddannыe cherkasы great ruler and all the Greeks from our Orthodox Faith kotorыh accepted by, all the summer narodы according svoy schyslyayut from eighth days of Christmas to come down, ie from 1 henvarya numbers, but not from creating peace by mnohuyu Polytones different and in those schytanye letah , and from Christmas nыne reach 1699 h, and buduhdeho henvarya numbers from 1 nastanet a new 1700 and hour Unto stoletnыy a new century, and for the good and poleznoho Dela cite the Great State vpred summer in an order and schyslyat In any delah fortress and write with nыneshneho henvarya with 1 number from Christmas 1700 year. And in a sign of a good venture and the new century stoletnoho tsarstvuyuhdem degrees in Moscow, after dolzhnoho blahodarenyya to God and prayers Singing in church and someone in the house and sluchytsya svoem, and for the most proezzhym znatnыm znatnыm streets and people in houses and myrskoho narochytыh Spiritual Growth of before Some will do vorotы jewelry from an ancient and Vetv sosnovыh, and elevыh mozhzhevelovыh against Obraztsov, kakovы sdelanы the banquet hall, and at the bottom of pharmacies, or to whom and how udobnee prystoynee, We look for jobs and gates, will do perhaps, but everybody should lyudem skudnыm although in drevtsu , or at vetve vorotы, or look upon set upon the tabernacle, and it would then pospelo, nыne buduhdeho henvarya Hence k 1 of the year, and are therefore jewelry henvarya on day 7 of the same year, 1700. Yes henvarya it in 1 day, in a sign veselyya, congratulate each other Happy New Year and stoletnym vekom do unto sye: when on the big Krasnaya Square fiery and fun for zazhhut strelba will, sweat on the courts of the boyars and znatnыm okolnychym and dumnыm and neighbors and people znatnыm Ward , voynskoho and Growth of kupetskoho znamenytыm people, everybody should be in the courtyard from svoem nebolshyh pushechek, who will be there, and from several Mushketov or ynoho Melcom ruzhya will do troezhdы strelbu and to release several raketov, how many who sluchytsya, more than the streets, where there is space of, henvarya from 1 to 7 the number of nights ohny zazhyhat from wood or wattle or solomы and where melkye dvorы, five or six sobrav yard, such a fire or lay someone pohochet on stolbykah puts one in 2 or 3 or at smolyanыya and hudыya barrel , and napolnya straw or brushwood, zazhyhat, and before the City Hall Burmysterskoyu strelbe ohnyam and so on and decorate their razsmotrenyyu same Being. "
Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. T. III. Number 173
To celebrate the new year in the world
With all the variety, the New Year in different countries have common traits: a farewell to the old year and hope that the troubles remain in the past but this year everything will change for the better. But despite this, each country keeps its traditions.
In Romania, on New Year bake pies made little surprises - coins, porcelain figurines, rings, pods bitter pepper. Found in sweets ring should bring lots of happiness. A pod of pepper Razveselite those who do not get it.
In France on New Year's baked beans in a carrot (fortunately). A traditional New Year's gift in the countryside - the wheel.
In Scotland, New Year's Eve set fire to the tar in the barrel and bear it through the streets. Scots consider it a symbol of burning the old year. Then rock the New Road is open. The first man that came into the house after the New Year brings happiness or failure. Dark-haired man with a gift - for luck.
In Wales, going to visit on New Year, we should grab a piece of charcoal and throw it in the New Year's night rozpalyuvanyy fireplace. This indicates friendly intentions guests. Exactly at midnight the doors wide open to be dissolved to release the old and let the New Year.
In Japan, New Year's Eve called "golden weeks". Currently not working organizations and firms, government agencies, large department stores. Even banks are closed on 12 th December 31 and rest the first three days of New Year. Mandatory custom wiring of the old year, including receptions and visits to restaurants. At the moment the New Year the Japanese begin to laugh. They believe that laughter will bring them luck. Temples in the mirror 108 strikes the bell. With each blow, as the Japanese say, is everything bad that will not be repeated in the New Year. To ward off evil spirits, the Japanese hang bundles of straw in front of the house. In the houses placed in a prominent place rice cakes over them - tangerines, symbolizing happiness, health and longevity.
In Cuba in the New Year clock beats only 11 times. Since the 12 th blow falls exactly on New Year's clock and give the rest to meet the holiday quietly with them. At midnight the Cubans vyhlyupuyut water through open windows into the street, wishing for the New Year was as bright and clear as water.
In Italy New Year's Eve passed throw the old stuff and buy new instead. And if things are not old, you have to throw out new, otherwise happiness will bypass the house party.
Living in Greece, following a visit to celebrate the New Year, take the stone with which to leave the house near the door which you came. If a stone is hard, saying: "Let the rich owner will be difficult, as this stone." And if a small stone, the desire: "Let the problems in the home owner will be as minor as this stone.
In Burma, Thailand and New Year is celebrated in the most heat, so the people at the meeting one another pours water. This kind of wishes for happiness in the New Year.
The Bulgarians, having met on New Year's celebration, a few minutes extinguishing the light. These moments are called moments of New Year's kisses, which keeps the secret darkness.
In Mongolia, New Year's meet at the tree, however, Mongolian Santa Claus comes to kids in costume shepherd. On New Year's celebration held sports competitions, games, test agility and courage.
What is presented to the New Year Backgrounds
Each dish on New Year's table vested in different countries in different people with special meaning and significance.
In France, a holiday not a holiday, New Year's table if no traditional roast turkey. But on Christmas tables in Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia never dishes from geese, ducks, chickens, turkeys. You believe that the birds eat in the evening should not - fly happiness.
In Poland, on New Year's table, you can count exactly Twelve Dishes. And no meat! Mushroom soup or borscht, barley porridge with prunes, dumplings with butter, a sweet chocolate cake. Required - fish. It is in many countries as a symbol of family happiness and prosperity. It looks like an entertainment exhibit and the Czech Republic and Slovakia. However, the advantage they offer pearl porridge, and still love strudel - apple leaf roll, pride of every good housewife.
In Germany on New Year must submit a brightly painted tray with apples, nuts, raisins and pies. Symbolism is: apple - the fruit of knowledge of good and evil, nuts with their hard shell and a delicious heart symbolize the mysteries and difficulties of life. In Germany, saying: "God has a nut, but he should split it."
In many countries - Spain, Portugal, Cuba - a symbol of prosperity and a happy family hearth has long considered the vine. Therefore residents of these countries under the bell chimes at midnight eat twelve grapes - the number of attacks on the clock. Each vine Put forth thy desire - Twelve cherished desires, one for each month of the year.
In Japan on New Year's dishes are prepared with products according to orders, to bring happiness. Sea cabbage gives joy, roasted chestnuts - for success, peas and beans - health, boiled fish - peace and good spirits, herring roe - a happy family and many children. Christmas meal in Japanese families and the current passes quietly without loud conversations and drinking songs. Nothing should distract from thinking about what each expects the coming year.
Popular New Year's gift in Japan - a rake to rake in what was happiness. Bamboo rake, make kumade size from 10 cm to 1,5 m and is decorated with drawings and various mascots.
In the Italian provinces there has long been the custom: January 1 in the morning should bring home a "new water", recruited from the source to the sunrise and early for others. "If you do give your friends - say the Italians - a gift" new water "with olive branches." It is believed that it brings happiness.
In Vietnam, New Year's Eve give friends spray peach trees that napivrozpustylosya - Khao Tao. In Sudan a talisman of happiness in the New Year is green unripe nuts.