Malanka holiday (Christmas Eve) and Basil (Old New Year)
Malanka holiday marks the New Year's Eve (December 31, Old Style, 13 January for a new one), yet it is called the generous evening, or generous (second) kutia. St. Basil called the Old New Year and marks its 1 January to the old style (14 for new). Unlike the evening during the Holy generous dinner table covered with rich, dominated meat dishes. In some villages in Vinnytsia, even black pudding, which is a traditional New Year dish called "Malanka. For the second time during the winter preparing svyatok kutyu. Baked bread and special "Malanka" and "Basil" (see ritual bread).
Once the woman was mixed dizhu baking ritual New Year's bread is peeled from the hands of dough, she went with her husband scare trees that bring bad. A man carrying an ax or stick woman Wisp made from Didukh (straw, lying on the floor of St. pm). Approaching the tree, the man knocked on it three times poll ax or stick and said: "Why are you, pears, not brought forth? You I cut down, hew down!" Or: "Thou shalt not bear, I hack, and shall be delivered, I will honor." The tree correspond to the wife: "Not my Rubi, and Wisp Gird, I'll still useful to the state." After this woman obtyrala hands of dough against a tree and tied his Wisp.
As the people believed that after such procedures tree fear and always give a good harvest. After all, Malanka, especially in the Christmas night, the plants understand human speech, even the animals speak in human terms. By the way, animals that night could complain to God for the hosts when those bad things are with them. So on this day the cattle are carefully looked after, well fed, clean, pet.
And on Malanka hostess carefully chepuryat, pidbilyuyut oven, because the night before New Year she dances, is given. Here are explanations regarding the commemoration of the furnace in the New Year's night, recorded in different regions of Ukraine, leads Professor S. Kylymnyk: "Because of the furnace must be purely Malanka vymaschena, lest klyala not vymaschena." No one in this night is sleeps on the stove, not sitting, it did not put, for her hard dance "..." Let the rest ... Vasil Malankoy comes to dancing in the oven - so they do not interfere "... In the oven put oats - on bread, as in our wedding, and she is given oats, how are giving away. " "To have something to feed the horse, because she goes to town on Gertz. (Ukrainian Year ... Kyiv, 1994. Book 1, S.116.)
With the onset of twilight walk through the village for war schedruvalnykiv in carnival costumes with music. Among bachelor groups dominated community in addition to charged separately walked and groups of girls. For schedruvalnykiv as for the carolers, there was no sexual restrictions, but the maiden Malanka schedruvala mostly under windows and in addition to charged groups of boys begged to house, and masked characters in bachelor Malanka was much more.
Among the most often in addition to charged images Malanka, Basil, goats, grandfather of grandmother, Roma, bear, crane, cat ... Malankoy boy was patched in skirts, old scarf, eyebrows and eyes summed soot, bleached chalk face, cheeks and lips painted red beet or viburnum. In the hands Malanka wore cotton. She is very loved pet with everyone who pidvernetsya, while obmurzuvala them his "makeup." Researcher Ukrainian New Year rites "The Goat" and "Malanka O. Kurochkin writes:" In some villages Dniester Ukrainian (village Holoskiv, Keptyntsi Kamenets Podolsk district, Khmelnitsky region) for stories informants instead of the guy on the role of selecting good Malanka crummy woman who had children and was happy in marriage. "(S.201)
Goat boy was dumped in wool top housing, the horns were made from spears to a plate attached to two (mouth), and strand hemp (beard), his mouth opened and closed by clapping that frightened children. Between horns chiplyaly bell back - tail with a broom. Dressed bears the strongest guys who know how to fight well. Their costumes were inverted upside fur coats, feet tied beams straw, hay, or sheep's clothing, skins and made masks. Zhuravel was a guy on stilts, or with a long neck, which was made of poles.
In pop music girl group role Malanka and Basil do girls. Girls' absorbs Malanka to grab a young obkvitchayut blossom, Basil also pick up the girls, put on a good Basil pants, jacket, hat, bring mustaches. Two well pidmalovuyut. Sometimes girls schedrivnytsi limited only by one character costume - Malanka (Kurochkin Eng. Nob. Ordinances "Goat and Malanka. S. 216-217.).
Approaching the window, maskers in the song form asked the owners permission schedruvaty:
"Ivan Goi, Ivanochko,
Let the house Malanochku ... "
"Let the house warm five
Let the stove to warm teeth
Let the oven to warm the shoulders ... "(... Kurochkin - S. 139)
Check in addition to charged was a good sign because they are usually happy to invite home. OV Kurochkin suggest that the maskers schedruvalnyky represents "the representatives of other world that providuyut living relatives are defined in terms of holidays and always at night. (Kurochkin AV Ukrainian New Year's rituals, "goat" and "Malanka" (from the history of folk masks). - C. 1995. - S. 132. Schedruvalnyky visited the house only received permission to host. The house originally performed carols for velychalni each family member, then sang songs about Malanka. Malanka at this time spun cotton, prytantsovuvala, imitating the movements of, glorified in schedrivtsi, showing that it is a good hostess, all done the opposite: a house swept from threshold to the table, put on shoes table, the plates under the table, tried to help the hostess pidbilyty floor or wash the clay wall. The owners wanted to confuse her, "marshal" and watched carefully to Malanka nothing stolen. This is her vodylos well as under the torn thing, it requested additional ransom or threatened to sell it in the next house, where they say, more will. Sometimes she put a maiden special thing to Malanka it stole, it foreshadowed the girl a quick marriage.
At that time began to bleat and sintsyah tupotity goat. Schedruvalnyky asked the owners to let her into the house and warm it up on legs in the cold and frozen beans. The owners initially refused, thinking out a variety of reasons, goat Popsuy floor, eat flowerpots, children polyakaye. Fucking kids wanted to see a goat, they urged parents to let her into the house. Schedruvalnyky strongly touted his goat: it, they say, and pretty and rozumnenka, can dance and sing able, tale tells people glad. The owners finally agreed.
Entering the house, a goat at first scared the audience, trying their butsnuty horns, and then a singing dancing schedruvalnykiv reflect on what singing in schedrivtsi. All ends that came shooting or boys and young men hit (vstrelyly) goat in praveye needle in exactly serdushko or for left or right foot, goat fell, legs zadrala or fell and became lifeless. In short, the goat died.
What meant this ritual? Why will it kill a goat? After a goat was a symbol (deity) of fertile fields. By the way, and now part of neskoshenoyi fields, or non-assembled rows called goat. In Greek and Roman mythology, the gods of fertility and harvest also had signs of similarity with the goat. In ancient times people noticed that the land where there was livestock, plants grow much better, give a better harvest. On the influence on fertility of goats and fields sung in Ukrainian folk schedrivka:
Where goat walk, there rye bear
Where does not happen, there vylyahaye,
Where goat-tup concluded,
There's heaps of seven rye,
Where goat horn, where stacks of rye,
Where goat tail, there rye Bush ...
(Podolskye eparhyalnыe Vedomosti. -1897.-N 52-52.-S.1392.)
Apparently goat death - symbolized the death of winter vegetation fields. However, the main ritual of death was not a goat, and her ozhyvlyannya. All present in the house and tried to revive schedruvalnyky goat rozsmishyvshy it. This all means were good, just like a goat laughed, and began to resist, gave signs of life. Its "treating" doctor ", while commenting on their actions so that all in the room laughed turchaly Cozy in your ear, count the teeth to make sure old or young, there was extreme (embarrassing) method - tried to" verify whether the goat doyitsya . As for the folk traditions goat perevdyahalys guys, it usually resulted in a goat's breath, she struggled, vydyralasya, showed signs of life.
Bringing to life a goat marked the bringing to life the spring fields, orchards, pastures, nature in general. Laugh wearing magic value - drove them away evil forces also believed if laugh in the New Year's Eve and then the whole year will pass with a laugh, fun and happy. Finally schedruvalnyky proclaimed verses from the wishes of happiness, good in the new year and asked for compensation for the Goat, in addition to charged Malanka or other characters. "Give money, bell polataty to what was whack, give Cozy for hay, Malanka on apron, grandfather of tobacco." Hosts instead of money or sweets offered Cozy hay, straw, oats, buryachkiv, what schedruvalnyky answered that their kid will not eat, she loves fresh loaves, pies, and snort and shkvarochku, ham and sausage. Upon hearing of the house treats vvalyuvalys "gypsies" with a "bear" and began to meditate, dance, horses offered prick, or someone from the domestic, the owners cried for help guard who were also among those in addition to charged and dismissed from the room noisy guests in obtaining remuneration from the owners.
Let's give some assumptions and hypotheses concerning the ceremonies and some characters of the New Year carnival. At Goat described above, and now examine the other main person - Malanka. Researchers Ukrainian Christmas rituals believe that the Christian holiday Melanie, a day whose memory is marked on the last day of the year, replaced the older image of the goddess Makoshi (Mokosha were placed). . Goddess Mokosha were placed entered the pantheon of pagan gods most of Kievan Rus, Vladimir idols are installed on the mountain. She was the patroness of women, helped the parturient women during childbirth, has contributed to women's affairs - especially spinning. Were the rain goddess, sister of the Sun. [17, c. 109]. B. Rybakov considers her a goddess of fertility "earthly plodorodyya and the intermediary between heaven and earth. [, C. 128] ** BA Rybakov. Paganism ancient Rus. M.: Nauka, 1988. - 784 sec. ] Researcher Indo-Ukrainian relations Nalyvayko displays Mokosha were placed with an Indian word, which means the Great Goddess. (P. 94)
Remember that in ancient times our ancestors celebrated the New Year in spring. In winter, when all nature as if dying, Goddess of fertility could be among the dead. In connection with the other world Malanka New Year's night shows folklore material. So Precarpathian schedrivtsi schedruvalnyky asked Rahman Malanka walk away:
Oh Sudarev, Rahmanochku,
Let us Malanochku
With flowers, with Dutka,
With good boy [22, c.132]
According to folk beliefs Rahman live underground, are closely connected with the cult of ancestors. So the Goddess of fertility in winter is below ground in the kingdom Rakhmanov, or in hell and asked her to issue a walk. Lyrics Schedrivkas indicate that Christmas night Malanka (Makosha) got lost and apparently tore the underground kingdom:
Oh, on the evening of Melanky
Keeping the two Melanka Kachur. / 2 /
Oh kept them, kept them - lost.
Went to seek - fro. / 2 /
Oh prybludyla chysteye in the field
Oh there plowing Powered pluzhkom: / 2 /
- Oh Vasil Vasylechko,
Bring me to stezhechku. / 2 /
I will honor you,
At times a day to water, / 2 /
What subotonky rupture,
What nedilenky pardon. / 2 / [c. 30-31]
Vasily pluzhkom plowing and has a man, but when asked Malanka show it on the path, it promises a reward for the service attractive for plants - dig, water ... It is possible that the action takes place in another dimension, ie in the Underworld, and Christian V. we can associate with pagan patron deity of vegetation, which had a human form, but after the departure of another world, could only appear on earth in the form of plants - Basil flower. Quite often called Basil schedrivka under condi:
Better yet Vasylyunyu.
Oh, under condi Vasylchyku,
I sow in those horodchyku,
I will honor those,
Three times a day to pour,
And top of zschypuvaty,
What does the word "under condi? In Nechuy-Levitsky can read: "... Spring is described as Mrs glorious cherevataya that zacherchylas three sons: the pashnychka, and Koniushky zemchyka "[29, c.29]. The word "zacherchylas" taken here in the sense conceived three sons. By analogy we can assume that under condi-Vasylchyk - is the embodiment of man's productive forces, the deity that impregnates the earth, husband or husband of the Goddess of fertility Malanka (Makoshi), with which it must enter into marriage relationships to be a harvest next year.
Basil knows the way to the afterlife in the ad world, which can be overcome in the New Year's night, and displays Malanka from the kingdom of the dead. To get from the nave in the real world, they obviously some cross border water. In songs about Malanka often encountered a situation where Malanka finds himself near the water and soak your clothes, including apron. To hide the fact from enemies fleeing in schedrivka hides the real reason Malanka wet clothes and given to others, often absurd explanation:
Melanka Our hostess,
On the ice-spoon of soap ... / 2 /
Spoon and plate missed / 2 /
Spoon, got a plate,
Bilenky zamochyla apron.
Our Malanochka in the Dniester was
Dnistrova water to drink,
On the stone foot soap
Slim apron zamochyla ...
Slim zamochyla apron.
Povij wind buynesenkyy,
Dry wisp apron.
Povij wind out of the ravine, the ravine,
Apron better dry heat.
Povij winds, marsh
Dry apron better zlotys.
Povij wind back and forth
Dry apron, go among people. [31, c.147]
In the version of the songs, recorded KV Shyrotskym, apron Malanka in gold, which indirectly suggests it difficult, perhaps divine origin. [46, c.10]
Runaway pursue worldly force to return it back underground. To shoot down enemies with confusing, confusing signs, people resorted to dressing up and disguise. And instead of a true Goddess in all the villages go malankari bands. Each has its own vatazi maskers (substitute) Malanka, with a retinue Basil, grandfather, grandmother, and a goat herd guards - guards, dragoons, Ulan Cossacks or the military attributes. The existence of genuine and replacement Malanka can be explained by its dual characteristics. Some schedrivka Malanka described is as a good hostess to help her husband in the same other way around - it awkward ledaschytsya. Some band pidmalovanyy this guy in a leaky female attire, in others - beautiful mother, who has several children, happy in marriage to the same magnificent physique. Young man - the personification of Malanka substitute wife-mother is probably true image of the Great Goddess, the goddess of fertility. This is stated in the New Year on schedrivka Malanka give some examples:
About Malanka true
On the Hill fire burns
Christmas Eve, good evening chorus}
St. Basil the plow walks
A horse Malanka Voda
Horse Voda, scarf nose.
In our brave scarf three herbs:
The first potion - vasylochok,
The second potion - barvinochok,
The third potion - lyubystochok.
Vasylochok by obrazochok,
Barvinochok on wreath,
The third potion of the wedding.
About Malanka substitute
... Our Malanka - obmannytsya,
At the bottoms of pants, skirt above.
Our Malanka maiden,
It shirt bachelor. [22, c .135]
Our Malanka - hostess,
How pomastyt as dishwater.
Stand bowl in the bench
And overgrown Muravka.
Stand the pots on the second
And overgrown usuhoyu [, c.209] ** Folk songs from the Dniester River in the records Eugenia Yaroshynskoyi. -K.: Ukraine Music, 1972. - 323 sec. ]
We can assume that the visit Basil in the real world in the form of a man confined to one Christmas night. Malanka moving with the next world in real, he probably violated any prohibition on that morning sun should be a basil flower. It was Christmas night, when the Goddess of fertility escaped from the kingdom of the dead, but God vegetation has not lost human form, they can marry. Their marriage is a sacred land of wealth, fertility and fecundity of plants of animals. This marital relationship and represent ritual loaves Malanka and Basil, who on New Year's night lying on a festive table at each other, protected by magical attributes - garlic, hemp families, metal coins. Villagers do not sleep that night on the stove and drowning it to Malanka was where to spend the night with my husband.
Theme weddings are very well represented in New Year ritual activities, folklore and beliefs. Crowds in addition to charged playing substitute wedding Malanka to trick the spirits from the world. This wedding really turns into farce with fun entertainment, this is how it writes A. Kurochkin: "Instead of the traditional icons of the past in the spirit of carnival inversion," blessed "Zatula from the oven, stick and rolling pin or something else that caught his hand. Further action as if postponed to the church. Following the real ceremony, the couple kept in the hands of "candle" - cobs, obvyti garlands of dried periwinkle or asparagus, on the head with wreaths of dry weeds or tops ... "[22, c. 158] "from informants - the performers and witnesses ceremony (shipping materials from the Carpathian) - have information that in the improvised performances Malanka duplicate or her character" woman "could imitate fleeting births, resulting in the light of God appeared doll-baby. From the same sources and from the same region known as the preliminary stage of the life cycle of physiological human - sexual intercourse and pregnancy - were a constant object of the game image malankari. "[22, p.151].
So wedding Malanka and Basil is the beginning of New Year, which launches a new life, the awakening of nature.
Among the ceremonies taking place in the New Year's night, you can also name the bands competition in addition to charged malankari. They are usually held at midnight at a crossroads, and bridges over the stream or masonry. The competitions were both individually and collectively. In individual matches, each band maskers exhibited his representative. We started fighting maskers generally bears sometimes clash enough to determine which band won, and sometimes it came to collective competition "wall" on the "wall" that someone will steal. The team that lost to missed winners ahead.
Beating on the bridge, on the border of two worlds separated by water, and even at midnight could znamenuvaty duel with representatives from other world who pursue Malankoy and obdarovuvannya addition to charged - donations redeemed by otherworldly forces Malanka.
January 14 at the Old New Year, or Basil owners wake up early, before sunrise, clean straw on the floor, pidmitayut in the house. From Saint Basil the floor to even none pidmitav not to sweep out and bring happiness and the fate of the house.
Old New Year looking forward to the boys since the day they drop down a good opportunity to earn money and treats. In the morning, before dawn, typing in your pocket or glove grain, they go to neighbors and relatives posivaty. Most posivayut wheat can posivaty rye, barley, oats. Not posivayut peas because they believe that it originated from the tears of the Mother of God and Ritual posivannya it can cause tears in the family, and buckwheat "zavedutsya for fleas in the house" or "be a controversy." Posivayuchy boys say: "Siysya, rodysya, rye, wheat, all pashnytsya, fortunately for Health, on New Year that yielded even better as last year, to Konopel'ka stelky, linen knee to you, the owner, not the head hurt! "Happy New Year cheers to you fought bulls and cows to bear carrots and beets, pumpkins and cucumbers, potatoes and cabbage, that your girl was tlusta" word "tlusta means insufficient, doridna.
The hosts treat posivalnykiv pies, piece by Vasily, nuts, candy, paying little money. And most could make the boy who came posivaty first. He assigned to noon in the school obmolotyty sheaf (Didukh), who was in Pokuttya from Christmas break or pumpkin DIDUKH lying in kubeltsi under the table. Sheaf obmolochuvaly Makogon, grain and straw are considered miracle of it. Grains of Didukh to keep sowing and sown with seeds of Niva, that was a good harvest. With boiled pumpkin porridge, it also treated animals, with Didukh seeds (pumpkin) were collected in a bowl, and prosushuvaly sown in spring in the furrows to well bore all the pumpkins and vegetables.
Didukh of straw burning in the morning on New Year's Eve in the garden. People believe that smoke from Didukh very useful, it provides a good harvest next year, protects trees from frost, protect from pests. According to folk beliefs that smoke not only protects the wood, but also family members, including everything from small to big jump over the fire to be healthy and not get sick next year, children endured at the hands through the smoke.
According to folk beliefs of spirits and the spirits of ancestors fields to help grow crops, hiding from the reapers in the last sheaf. This sheaf ceremony are from the field during obzhynok, then stored in the barn or barns to the holy evening, and on Christmas Eve called "a Didukh, to bring honor to the house, put on the bench for most honored place in the place where the most expensive seat guests. Didukh is in the house of the holy evening before New Year and the New Year it burn. In antiquity the Slavs there wont trupospalennya. Perhaps the spirits of ancestors with smoke in birds fly away to the spring to return to Niva.
In some villages the Right Bank remained arrange customs common to the entire fire community. "After the ritual walk around the village, Bukovina played through the morning went into the streets smoking (scorch)" grandfather "or" Didukh ... Originally Malanka, and other masks jumped over a fire. ... In the village Korchivtsi the fire will cast straw, which were filled hills masked "grandfathers." The boys from the village before Varenchanka burn "Didukh, rendered anthropomorphic form. Here, as told recently it was customary to throw a New Year's bonfire in the mask. "(Kurochkin S.204) These facts confirm the hypothesis that the New Year escaping characters embody ancestors coming from a world of masks and burning may be associated with funeral lights, with the help of which ancestors left the real world and moved into the world of the dead.
Ends clean water action which involved all maskers. Malankari gang went to the river where the group washed, sometimes poured water bryzkalys and sometimes even resorted to swimming in ice-hole. "Malanka disguised in no case could not avoid swimming. Otherwise, according to Ukrainian-old residents in the village Bilyavyntsi guy who performed this role could grow a tail. " (Kurochkin p. 199.)
In addition to the aforementioned New Year rituals in historical sources in the last century recorded in Ukraine and ritual plowing. Schedruvalnyky New Year's Eve pulled the plow and do symbolic plowing snow and earth. Sometimes maskers on New Year brought the house or just plow Chepigy imitated and then plowing posivaly. This confirms the assumption that the new year in ancient times our ancestors were noted in spring. New Year rituals associated with plowing, posivannyam, obmolochuvannyam sheaf, followed the men or boys, since these studies were considered masculine.
Symbols of the holiday: Malanka, Basil, Goat, grandfather, grandmother, Crane, Gypsies, cat and other maskers, flowering cherry branch, DIDUKH glove with the seeds of rye and wheat.
Customs: People's Carnival with the performance and playing of songs long show, the principal actors who have Malanka, Basil, Goat, grandfather, grandmother, cat, doctor, Crane, Gypsies, mindful minding; deterrent trees honoring the hearth - a furnace; obmolochuvannya Didukh ; breaking Didukh (pumpkin) Ritual posivannya; burning Didukh and rituals associated with it.
Ritual meals: kutya, stewed fruit, Malanka, Vasily ", various meat dishes.