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Головна » 2011 » Травень » 9 » Originality wooden churches Gutsulschiny
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Originality wooden churches Gutsulschiny

Originality wooden churches Gutsulschiny
 
Under state protection in Ivano-Frankivsk is 587 monuments of sacred architecture, among them - 446 churches and 88 bell. The most famous are the following churches: the Holy Spirit in Rohatyn; St. Basil the Great in the village. Cherche Rogatyn; Archangel Michael in the village. Ustya Snyatinskogo area; Nativity of the Virgin in the village. Trochanter, John and Anne in the village. Smodna Kosiv; Mary Cathedral in the village. Lower Verbizh Kolomiyskogo area and others. Journalist Skavron Bogdan notes that since 1991, as of June 2009, Ivano-Frankivsk in 1917 a wooden church burned. Another 12 religious communities of old temples demolished because of poor load-bearing structures. According to the Regional Directorate of Cultural Heritage, the immediate repair and restoration work required 129 wooden churches, to eliminate an emergency condition requiring million [1].

That is disappointing statistics, positive which can make that five years ago the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine has agreed with the Polish Centre for Testing and documentation of historical monuments on the conclusion of a joint list of old wooden churches for bringing them to the list of UNESCO. In 2009, in Ivano-Frankivsk chose two ancient churches - in the town of Rohatyn in the village. Lower Verbizh Kolomiyskogo area, although with certain reservations. So hope for recognition of these shrines there, but much depends on what condition will these temples, where experts will evaluate them.

Wooden Church Heritage Ivano-Frankivsk region is of great interest to researchers of spiritual culture of Ukraine. This is because the country's population belongs to a different ethnographic groups: Lemkies, Jaunty, Hutsuly et al. As the researcher Ludmila Prybyeha: "Among the mountain people of Ukrainian Carpathians, their originality and depth of traditional folk culture, art, life is particularly notable hutsuly. ... Hutsuls congenital loggers and carpenters. Therefore gutsulskie building quality and durable, have a clear spatial structure, planning and refined proportions "[2].

In general gutsulskuyu house of wood is p'yatyzrubnym, cruciform in plan and odnoverhym. The central frame has a square shape and has always uvinchuyetsya octagon tent top of the drum. To protect the house from rain and snow gutsulskie masters always have a wide shelter.

Based on this architectural scheme in XVIII-XIX centuries. gutsulskom land arose in many churches in different variants. Village Vorokhta Nadvirna district, which lies in a picturesque part of the Ukrainian Carpathians, known to many fans of green tourism. Obviously, those who show interest in wooden monuments, pay attention to the two temples of this town. Many sources of wooden architecture, as former Soviet and modern, Vorokhta church of the Virgin is an absolute in form and proportions among all gutsulskih. It was built in 1615 in the village. Yablunitsa the same area (favorite place for summer and winter holiday), and in 1780 it moved to Vorokhta and set on a hill where it overlooks the Prut river.

P7317475.JPGNezvazhayuchy over two centuries of history of the church, its initial composition of our time has come to the same. "It reflects ... cruciform scheme with a centrally located mouth. Four constructions (Babinets, altar and two side compartments) that are adjacent to a spacious, high and well lighted CHETVERYK skills, markedly inferior to him in height and have a rectangular, elongated shape in the longitudinal direction, "- said L. Prybyeha [2]. Almost equally spatial cross arm is less than the height of the central frame and ended with a span roofs Gables and small crown with crosses over prychilkamy [2]. The interior is dominated by multi-tiered temple, stretched up and well-lit space of the nave. If the church of its type in Coloma somewhat squat, the temple is celebrated in Vorokhta slim proportions and successful completion. In Soviet times, in 1979 it was restored by architect B. Kindzelskyy, G. Kruk, I. Mohytych. At the time of independence of liturgical prayer in the temple monks revived by Charter Studytskoho (Church) from the village. Dora near Kalush.

Actually in this area we will continue to meet further with the wooden masterpiece Gutsulschiny, but the recent recall of Peter and Paul Church in Vorokhta. It was built in the years 1924-1925 and has greater height, more modern architectural forms and is not deformed by nature and history of the wood material. Standing in the center of town near the road, is the Greek Catholic community Vorohty. Church of the Blessed Virgin makes an interesting traveler (including the author) to pause and compare how craftsmen of different ages in one village have invested heart and soul in two different churches of trees that separates about 150 years ...

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If you go in the direction of Vorohty Yaremche, in villages and Krementsy Mykulychyn can also stop in front of wooden churches - St. respectively. Demetrius (dating from the XVIII century.) And Holy Trinity (1868). By this route still open malovnychishi landscapes, bridges, built during the Austro-Hungarian, numerous private sector to expensive for the average Ukrainian services to relax in this heavenly corner of the Carpathians. And perhaps a small percentage of green tourists (the majority seeks primarily to visit the famous waterfall), now turn attention to the fact that Yaremche is a beautiful wooden temple. In the XVIII century. with. Yamna, which in fact has much to this city, was erected a wooden church of St. John the Compassionate. Central square frame, which is lifted up, "and goes into vosmeryk vinchayetsya tent covered with a cross and crown" [3]. Lateral branches are short, and shelter operezuye whole building. Therefore, the researchers emphasize that the church is perceived as a compact and slim. This vertical form St. John the Compassionate makes it similar in some ways to the ancient church in the village. Rohatyn.

The original wooden temple's completion marks the miracles of Archangel Michael in the village. Dora, a neighborhood almost Yaremche. Built in the XVII century. In part "contemporary" Vorokhta church. Michael Church and situated on a hill, it leads to spur-road retreating and cobbled steps. Entrance is on the part of the cemetery (by the way, often in the eye catches that are near the church cemetery gutsulskih).

Journalist Veronica Zanyk in his famous statement suggests the restorer of the National Museum in Lviv Vladimir Mokriya: Church from its inception has changed. Two or three hundred years ago it was not painted outside, not from the middle and had a natural color ohristye Moreno pine, although it was reconstructed in 1844. At the beginning of XX century walls of St. Michael's Church in Dora zafarbuvaly and fully painted. In 1950's of the local artist renewed ornaments of the sanctuary [4].

The architectural form of Archangel Michael church signs noted that the central frame is bigger. Side volume covered roofs with Gables. By joining chamber or narthex lobby. Cross branches covered a span roof with frontonchykamy and decorative domes.

V. Zanyk in his article points out that at the request of parishioners left the house restorers more modern look familiar (it did not return to the original). Most of the images of the iconostasis (prophetic, apostolic ranks), which is carved from wood, paint brushes are the master of the XIX century. Under this layer, however, there are older images. [4]. This iconostasis is one of the masterpieces Hutsul culture.

From 1946 to 1990 in the ancient temple of the community functioned ROC. Between Religious Freedom Michael Church this picturesque mountain region returned to rightful owners - the Greek Catholic community.

A new page in history with. Dora opened the Greek-Catholic religious Studytskoho Charter, which in 1935 with the blessing of the then Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky came here for permanent residence. Spouses Kokorudzy (Elias and Joanna), which was in Galicia glory patrons gladly given to Dori monastic community in the use of two houses and a large part of the field. In spring 1936 the monks established a cool industrial school and taught free gutsulskih guys who showed willingness to science. In spring 1937, Dori began construction of the monastery of St. Elijah, which was completed in the summer of next year. The Church emerged in Carpathian style, in the form of the cross. Established a special oval iconostasis, which contributed to the making of local school director John Svyschuk. Icons for the iconostasis made by burning and partially decorated with carvings.

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Journalist Veronica Zanyk Svyatoillinsku sanctuary characterizes as "a compact, folding, with dark spruce respectable frame under the wooden gontoy" [4]. We agree with her that sacred building attracts travelers. This is satisfied by these lines when zabazhashy relieve fatigue on the exit of Yaremche automatic stop near the road and noticed a cruciform in plan, odnoholovu church. It is attractive both outside and from within.

Since 1946, at the monastery church operated museum of atheism. In 1990 returned to the church congregation Svyatoillinskyy Studytskoho Charter, monks who tirelessly work hard on the spiritual field edge.

In 2000 the tract in the ravine thick with Dil. Dora was consecrated the newly rebuilt church of the Apostles Peter and Paul, which led to the rise of religious congregations St. Apostolos Andreas (derived from Argentina and now works in the heart of Church), in particular, Fr. Jaroslav Svyschuk. Made of wood, the church is an example of modern church building. The said priest performed manually painted the iconostasis. At the monastery courtyard are sculptures, busts thirteen Martyrs Church.

1.jpgBeruchy into account geographical features gutsulskogo edge, one can not help but mention another important place where the monument of nationwide significance - with its history and modern problems. This Coloma, where virtually bypass road is the church of Annunciation in the town of Coloma. We pay attention to the architectural features of ancient Kolomiyskogo temple, which, although not located in a mountainous area, and enlisted researchers to gutsulskih wooden monuments. Researchers believe that since the founding (1587) Annunciation Church was tryzrubnoyu, odnoverhoyu, and XVII. there were extensions and the temple was p'yatyzrubnym. "If a church Nativity of the Virgin in the village. Vorokhta growing vertically, the house in Coloma proportions for squat if spreads like on a small hill, "- says researcher L. Prybyeha [2]. The bell tower that stands near Blagovischensk church, built in the XVIII century. and a distinctive Hutsul school. With a wide shelter, it is compositionally closely related to the church. Community Church of the city and beaten in the alert bells - Annunciation Church in the coming years may suffer a serious collapse, although used as places of worship. Instead, community UOC-Moscow Patriarchate against the transfer of the Annunciation Church of their rightful owners, moreover, makes the least effort to save the sanctuary.

Author conscious that within one article is difficult to convey the impression of several churches gutsulskogo edge, but still presents the key historical facts and architectural features, without knowing that we do not fully understand the wooden "secrets" Carpathian area folk artists, their mentality and culture.



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